THE FOSSIL REMAINS OF VERTEBRATES UNEARTHED FROM THE PALAEOLITHIC CAVE DEPOSITS AT HSIAONANHAI IN ANYANG,HONAN PROVINCE
In the cave deposits of Hsiaonanhai in Anyang, Honan Province, a considerable amount of the fossil remains of vertebrates was found together with the palaeoliths. Apart from the fossilized egg shells of the Struthio anderssoni Lowe, they represent the following mamals: Erinaceus sp., Pongo sp., Myospalax fontanieri (Milne-Edwards), Rattus sp., Ursus cf. spelaeus Blumenbach, Meles leucurus Hodgson, Hyaena ultima Matsumoto, Canis cf. lupus L., Felts pardus L., Equus hemionus Pallas, Coelodonta antiquitatis(Blumenbach), Sus sp., Capreolus cf. manchuricus Lydek-ker, Cervus(Pseudaxix) sp., Bubalus sp., Gazella przewalski cBuchner, and Capricor-nis sp.About twenty two percent of the fossils belong to extinct animals of the late Pleistocene. They were probably contemporaneous with or slightly later than the fauna of the Sjara Osso Gol but still somewhat earlier than that of the Upper Cave of Choukoutien.The fauna of Hsiaonanhai site may be divided into two groups, one living in the forest and the other on the steppe. Their fossils are all rather fragmentary and some of them bear traces of having been burnt. The remains of large herbivores like the Equus hemionus Pallas and Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach) unearthed at the site usually belong to very young or old animals, indicating that they were probably objects of the chase. The presence at cave bottom of the fossils of hyaena's dungs shows that the cave had been occupied by hyaenas before its human occupation.The discovery of the two fossil teeth of the Pongo sp. is of particular interest since hitherto they have never been found in China north of the latitude 26° N. It shows that in the late Pleistocene some animals of the southern Chinese fauna also existed in north China.