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《Acta Archaeologia Sinica》 1977-01
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EXCAVATION OF EASTERN CHOU TOMB NO. 1 WITH HUMAN SACRIFICES AT LANG-CHIA-CHUANG IN TZ(?)-PO CITY, SHANTUNG PROVINCE

The Shantung Provincial Museum  
Excavated from December 1971 to May 1972, the present tomb is located near the village of Lang-chia-chuang in Tzu-po City, about one kilometre to the southeast of the old county seat of Lin-tzu and one half of a kilometre to the south of the site of the ancient city of Lin-tzu, the capital of the Ch'i State of the Warning States period. The earthen mound of the tomb, built from the ground level up and originally of a very impressive scale, had been practically levelled to the ground through constant dig ging for its earth. Test drillings give, however, a measurement of 83 metres from east to west and 65 metres from north to south. The tomb chamber, which is located at the base of the mound in the centre, has a measurement of 21 by 19.5 metres. Its walls are built of large boulders and surrounded by an earthen platform called erh ts'eng-t'ai 二层台. Beyond the latter is another earthen platform called p'ien t'ai 边台. Arranged on the secondary platform are seventeen pits each containing a human sacrifice. As the main chamber of the tomb had long ago been looted, only a few pieces of tomb furniture have been found in it. The tomb owner's wooden coffins have already disintegrated, leaving only some ashes. His skeleton is also largely disintegrated. However, the tomb contains the remains of twenty-six human sacrifices, of which nine were first slaughtered and then placed on the cover of the tomb owner's outer coffin. These nine were provided with neither coffin nor tomb furniture while the other seventeen human sacrifices are each buried in an earthen pit around the main chamber and provided with a coffin and tomb furniture. Examinations of ten skeletons out of this group reveal that they all belonged to young women who were probably either concubines or attendants of the tomb owner. In addition, there are the remains of eight dog sacrifices scattered in a haphazard manner on the secondary platform. Most of the tomb furniture are found in the burial pits of the seventeen human sacrifices and consist mainly of finely made personal ornaments of jade, stone, crystal and glass. There are also gold belt-hooks, gold foil, pottery imitations of bronze ceremomal vessels, pottery tomb figures and fragments of silk and hemp. Judging by the tomb structure and the objects unearthed, the tomb probably dates from the fifth or fourth century B.C. and belonged to an aristocrat of the Ch'i State. Its discovery is of much value to the study of the economy, history and class relations of the Ch'i State in this period.
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