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Some Advances in the Research of Epithermal Gold Deposis

LI Bi-le,ZHANG Han(College of Earth Sciences,Jilin University,Changchun,Changchun 130061,China)  
Studies on epithermal gold deposits showed that during the evolution of ore-forming fluids and in the deeper crustal region(3-4 km),different ore-forming elements and ore-loading elements changed into different phases due to fluid phase separation.This caused the formation of different types of fluids,in which the vapor phases in volatile S-rich had a strong ability to set mine under high pressures.This particular fluid had decisive significance in generating specific types in mineralization.Only when it transported to liquid phase could much ore-bearing vapor phase migrate to epithermal depth( 1-2 km),which nearly linked to the cooling of hydrous magma chambers.By cooling at elevated pressure above the critical curve of the salt-water fluid system,the vapor could contract directly to an aqueous liquid,and Au and other ore-forming elements would be migrated to shallow environment.Epithermal deposits and Carlin-type deposits could be formed in a continental rift environment.There were obvious similarities and comparability between high-sulfide types of the former and those of the latter,in the fluid source and the evolution,altered characteristics,contents and enrichments of trace elements and 34S‰.The element Te in Te-rich telluride deposit was likely to access to gas phase in the formation of Te2(g) and H2Te(g) during phase separations,and absorbed by groundwater in shallow,forming Ag(HTe) 2-and Au(HTe) 2-complex compounds,accompanied by fluid cooling,environmental changing and telluride precipitating.Gold in epithermal deposit characterized by special goldrich and less sulfur(tellurium) compounds might be transported in the form of gold-silicon complex compounds or gold-silicon alloy hydrides,and the precipitation of silicon and gold formed a special gold-rich ore deposit.
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