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《Wetland Science》 2014-05
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Phylogeny of Psychrophilic Bacteria from Peat Swamp Soil in Zoigê Plateau

GU Yun-fu;ZHENG You-kun;Petri Penttinen;WANG Xian-bin;ZHANG Xiao-ping;Department of Microbiology,College of Resource and Environment,Sichuan Agricultural University;Department of Food and Environmental Sciences,University of Helsinki;  
The samples at depth of 10-20 cm of peat swamp soil, covered by Carex meyeriana, were collected from the pastures in Axirong village, Maixi village and Military subarea in Zoigê Plateau in October 2008,and 9 sampling sites were arranged in each sampling pasture. To isolate cold-adapted bacterial strains from the peat swamp soil, bacteria were enriched using aerobic heterotrophic conditions at 4 ℃. Then amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis(ARDRA) was applied to analysis phylogeny of the isolates, which could be further used to monitor the potential biotechnical applications of the specific enzymes produced by these bacteria. Totally, 47 strains with different phenotypic characteristics were isolated from the three areas. The majority of the isolates were phylogenetically related to bacteria isolated from various cold environments such as the two Polar Regions, permafrost and glaciers. The isolates represented 4 major groups: the high-GC and the low-GC Gram-positives, and β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Among them, 4 representative isolates related(97.0%) to the genus Arthrobacter. REGD2 that represented the biggest ARDRA group was most closely related to Arthrobacter sp. GW10-3 isolated from Antarctica, with 99.46% sequence similarity; three isolates, REGD7,REGD15, and REGD16, were highly similar to Arthrobacter sp. strains isolated from Arctic, Antarctic and Himalaya; two representative isolates were grouped in the low-GC Gram-positives: REGD5 was most closely related to Exiguobacterium sibiricum strain 255-15 isolated from Siberian permafrost, with 99.6% sequence similarity; the most similar cultured strain to the other low-GC isolate, REGD8, was Paenisporosarcina macmurdoensis strain HWG-A8 isolated from the Tibetan Plateau permafrost soil, with 99.8% sequence similarity. The Gram-negative isolates are all belong to Proteobacteria, two representative isolates were affiliated with β-Proteobacteria while the other seven representative isolates related to γ-Proteobacteria. REGD10 was most similar to Variovorax paradoxus strain IHB B 1313 isolated from the cold deserts of the Indian trans-Himalayas,with 99.4 % sequence similarity, while REGD11 was most closely related to Janthinobacterium sp. HC3-10 from Arctic Cyanobacterial mats, with 99.8% sequence similarity. Five isolates(REGD1, REGD6, REGD9,REGD12, and REGD14) were affiliated with different Pseudomonas strains. The other two isolates(REGD3,REGD4) were affiliated with the genus Stenotrophomonas. However, the most similar cultured strain to both these isolates was Acetobacter pasteurianus strain CCM 3606 with 99.74% and 99.8% sequence similarity, respectively. Most of the isolates(87%) from the plateau wetland soil deposits were psychrotrophic and could not grow at temperatures above 30 ℃, and their optimum growth temperature were between 10-15 ℃. Most of the isolates could produce cellulase and almost half of them showed protease activity. In the extracellular enzyme assays, the Arthrobacter isolates were the most versatile ones. The wide range of enzymatic activities of the isolates suggested that psychrophilic bacteria in Zoigê Plateau are a promising source of enzymes for biotechnical applications.
【Fund】: 四川农业大学双支计划项目;; 四川省教育厅青年基金项目;; 国家自然科学基金项目(41201256)资助
【CateGory Index】: Q93
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