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《Scientia Silvae Sinicae》 1988-03
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Wang Qiao(Department of Plant Protection,Southwest Agricultural University,Chongqing,China)  
The origin and the migration of Monochamus Guér on the earth,theorigin of Chinese Monochamus fauna and its biogeographical relation toother areas,and geographical distribution of five species which do seriousdamages to the forests in China are discussed.It is indicated as follows: (1) Monochamus is a typical tropic and subtropic group.The globaldistribution of this genus shows that 59.3% of all species are distributedin Ethiopian,26% in Oriental,8% in Neoarctic,6.7% in Palaearctic andnone in both Australian and Neotropic. (2) Monochamus should originate from Ethiopian during Middle to LateCretaceous.Some of Monochamus species migrated from Ethiopian intoOriental during Early to Middle Tertiary through Arabian and Iranian areascovered with tropic rain-forests then.Since Late Tertiary,the immigrantsin Oriental had spread gradually into Palaearctic through the east of China.And ancestors of Neoarctic species should immigrate from Eurasia throughthe Bering Land Bridge during Cenozoic,but the exact immigrating timehasn't been determined yet. (3) Since Early to Middle Tertiary,the immigrants in Oriental hadtended to spread up to the north. (4) Monochamus fauna in China has evolved from:(a) Endemic com-ponents.They evolved from China,but their ancestors immigrated fromEthiopian through India and Indo-China during Early to Middle Tertiary.Some of China endemic species had spread into the north of China.(b)Indian and Indo-Chinese components.The species originated from Indiaand Indo-China immigrated into South China during Late Tertiary to Qu-aternary,some of which spread into North China. (5) Biogeographically,China Mainland is closely related to Japan,ChinaTaiwan,India,Indo-China,Siberia and Europe.All Monochamus species ofSiberia and Europe are also distributed in China.China Mainland and Japanas well as China Mainland and Taiwan share some of Monochamus species. Japanese endemic species (Palaearctic species) may probably do damages tothe forests of North and Northeast China,and endemic species (Orientalspecies) of Taiwan are also dangerous to the fcrests of South China (Ma-inland).There are a lot of species which are the same between South Chi-na,India and Indo-China,but endemic species of India and Indo-Chinamight be carried into South China and do damages to the forests theredue to (3) above.Therefore,import log and timber from Japan,ChinaTaiwan,India and Indo-China must be in strict quarantine. (6) There are five species that do serious damages to the forests inChina.M.bimaculatus,whose northest distribution border is at Nan Lin(about 25°N),belongs to typical Oriental components.This species mainlybores broadleaved trees in South China.M.alternatus is also an Orientalspecies,but its northest distribution border is at Chin Lin (about 33°N)in West China and at Beijing (about 40°N) in East China.M.alternatuslives on broadleaved and secondary coniferous trees,but mainly on massonpine Pinus massoniana Lamb.in China.The opposite is the case with M.urussovii,it belongs to a typical Palaearctic species,whose southest di-stribution border is at Chin Lin.This species bores coniferous trees.Thesimilar pattern is found to be the case with M.sutor and M.saltuarius.
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