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《Bulletin of Botanical Research》 1985-04
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Liu Shu-qiu;Du Nai-qiu;Kong Zhao-chen Hydrogeology team no.2 of geological bureau, Heilongjiang province,Harbin, HeilongjiangInstitute of Botany, Academia Sinica,Beijing  
In recent years, we carried out pollen analysis on some se-diments of the pleistocene and Holocene from the vicinity ofHarbin, Heilonjiang province. The samples were collected inthe field by geological worker of the Hydrology team no. 2,Heilongjiang. This paper is on the basis of characteristics of sporo-pollenassemblages from 3 boreholes and 3 geological sections of Har-bin and further interpretes paleovegetation, paleogeogaphy andpaleoclimate, It is significantion more or less to use pollen an-alysis in Hydrogeology. Acconding to the palynology stratigraphy magnetostigraphicstudies, thermolunescent date and radiocarbon dating someconclusions can be drown: 1. The Cretaceous flora is mainly composed of Cyatheaceae,Lygodiaceae, Schiaceae, Cycadaceae and Taxodiaceae,podocarpus,Cedrus of Conifere, The climate was hot and wet. The vegetationshows tropical south subtropical in aspect. The annual tempe-rature was about 14.2℃ higher than that of present. 2. The flora of palaeogene is represented by some warm-temperature and subtropical deciduous forests among whichsome evengreen trees were in existence. The climate was wetand less hot. The annual temperature was about 10℃ higher-than that of the present. 3. The flora of Neogene is mainly composed of Amentiferaebut some subtropical species of Liquidambar, Carya, Fagus etc. arestill in existence. the climate was warm and wet. The annualtemperature was higher than that of the present. As to latepliocene, The Harbaceous plants such as chenopodiaceae, Com-positae and Gramineae etc, were obviously increase. 4. Quaternary floras: The floras of the glaeial and intergla-cial periods are quite different here. About 31×10~4--28×10~4(Luo jiawopeng formation) years ago herbaceous plants such asArtemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Humulus, Compositae were flourishingin plain of Harbin and mountainous region, in cold -tempera-ture forest consisted of Picea and. Betula. According to thesteppe or tundra increasing at that time we think ahout 30×10~5B. P. ago or so that time climate was cold and dry. In the past 28×10~5--25×10~5 years (Guanjiawopeng formation)deciduous broad-leaved forest consisted of Betula, Corglus thrivedunder a warm and humid climate. About 25×10~5--10×10~5 yearsago (correspond to Baitushan formation), the floras were alter-nation of steppe and forest. In the early period of that timethe flora was represented by steppe or tundra, climate was coldand dry, then by cold -temperature coniferous -broadleaf forestconsisting of Picea, Abies, Betula etc. Meantime the aquaticplants such as Typha, Myriophyllum and Green algae were growingin some shallow stangant ponds lakes or marshes of the vicinityHarbin. The climate was rather humid and warm. In the lastpart of the period the flora was characterised by deciduousbroad-leaved forest consisted of Betula, Quercus, Alnus, Ulmus,Tilia, Juglans, Acer, Corylus with scattered Tsuga and Fagus etc.indicating the existence of a warm temperature climate in theearly interglacial period. In the past 10×10~5--5×10~5 years (Cor-respondent to Huangshan formation) was very poorly representedonly Humulus, Artemisia. Chenopodiaceae. We think at that timethe vegetational zone belongs to typical desert and steppe, the climate was very dry. During 40×10~4--15×10~4 years B. P. (Har-bin formation) was a cold -temperature steppe consisted ofArtemisia, Chenopodium etc. thrived under a cold and wet climate,Meantime lakes and marshes apparently decreased with glacialperiod of the Quaternary. As to tke sporo-pollen assemblagesin the Guxiangtun formation (15×10~4--3×10~4 Yr. B. P.) showthere was cold temperate glassland consisted of Artemisia, Che-nopodium, Humulus and Gramineae so we infer that the vicinityHarbin at that time should be one of cold and dry naturalenvironment. The vegetational development and climatic changesin Harbin from late pleistocene to Holocene (15--1.2×10~4 yr. B.P.) may be divided into four periods: During (12--10)×10~4 yr.B. P. declivitous plain in Harbin was covered by a temperaturesteppe and at the same time scattered Betula, Qu
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