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《Journal of Agro-environmental Science》 2005-02
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Contents of Heavy Metal in Commercial Organic Fertilizers and Organic Wastes

LIU Rong le, LI Shu tian, WANG Xiu bin, WANG Min (Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081,China)  
Heavy metals in main commercial organic fertilizers and organic wastes in China were monitored and analyzed. There was great variability in the contents of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg and As in the commercial fertilizers. On average, the contents of the above heavy metals were 732.4, 75.4, 53.5, 36.6, 5.64, 21.0, 0.44 and 2.96 mg·kg-1, respectively. According to GB18877-2002 for organic-inorganic compound fertilizers, the number of thesamples in which the concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cd exceed standard limitations was only 1, 2 and 9, respectively, in the total 162 tested samples. Neither As nor Hg in the samples was over the standard limitations. However, in reference to the limitations of mature compost in Germany about 19.1%、16.7%、9.3%、1.2%、67.9%、45.1%、10.5%of samples exceeded the limitations for Zn,Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in commercial organic fertilizers was significantly correlated with that in the raw organic materials (r= 0.440~0.9377). The content of some heavy metals in various organic wastes increased greatly compared with those tested in the 1990's. The reason for causing the pollution of the heavy metals in organic wastes was complicated. According to the limitations of mature compost in Germany, in chicken manure, for example, the percentage of the samples exceeding limitation for Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni was 31.9%, 23.4%, 21.3%, 66.6%and 57.4%, respectively. In hog manure: for Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni and Hg was 58.6%, 69.0%, 10.3%, 51.7%,24.1%and 3.4%, respectively. In cattle manure: for Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni was 4.8%, 9.5%, 2.4%, 38.1%and 21.4%, respectively. In sheep manure: for Zn, Cd, Ni and Hg was 6.7%, 20.0%, 20.0%and 6.7%, respectively. In cropstraw, seed cake, wastes from monosodium glutamate, furfural and paper production etc. the percentage of samples that exceed limitation for Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Hg was 3.2%, 3.2%, 38.7%, 22.6%and 6.5%, respectively. In compost, for Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni and Hg was 16.7%, 8.3%, 16.7%, 83.3%, 41.7%and 16.7%, respectively. In chicken and sheep manure, compost and organic wastes from crop straw, seed cake, monosodium glutamate, furfural and paper production Cdand Ni were the main heavy metals that excess limitations. But in hog manure Zn, Cu and Cd were the main heavy metals that excess limitations, and in cattle manure only Cd was the main heavy metals that excess limitations. The content of Pb in all organic wastes is below the limitation. Further studies need to be taken for establishing national standard limitations not only considering the concentration of heavy metals in organic fertilizers but also considering maximum application rate and accumulation effects of long-term applications.
【Fund】: 国家科技攻关计划重要技术标准研究专项课题(2002BA906A16)
【CateGory Index】: S141
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