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《Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering》 2016-17
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Response of detachment rate of loess slope to hydrodynamic characteristics under concentrate flow condition

Xiao Hai;Liu Gang;Liu Puling;State key laboratory of Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateaus, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS&MWR;  
Rill erosion caused by concentrate flow is one of the main erosion types on cultivated slope in the Loess Plateau. It is necessary to research on the response of concentrate flow hydrodynamic characteristics for a better understanding of rill erosion mechanism. However, the optimal runoff hydrodynamic parameter for estimating detachment rate was still ambiguous. An indoor concentrate scouring experiment was carried out was carried out in the State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland arming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, China to investigate the response of runoff hydrodynamic characteristics to detachment rate under concentrate flow condition with different inflow rates and slope gradients. Loessal soil collected from Yanan(35°21′-37°31′ N and 107°41′-110°31′ E) in Shaanxi province, a kind of typical soil in the Loess Plateau, was prepared for this research. The experiments were applied to a soil plot with 5 m long, 1 m wide and 0.5 m deep. Packing was carried out layer by layer to attain the desired uniform bulk density(about 1.25 g/cm-3) with 40 cm in depth. The bottoms of the boxes were perforated and covered with a layer of 10 cm sand under the gauze to facilitate even drainage of percolating soil water. After packing, the soil was watered to saturation with an electric sprayer to reduce the variability caused by packing. Four flow rate(10, 15, 20 and 25 L/min) combined with four slope gradient(10°, 15°, 20° and 25°) were designed for this research. The experiment lasted for 10 min after runoff initiation. Runoff and sediments were collected in a series of plastic containers at intervals of 1 min throughout the 10 min. The volume of water in each container was measured, and the sediment was dried in an oven and weighed. The flow velocity was measured by dye-tracing technique within the 1-4 m away from the bottom and the flow width was also measured at 4 sections between 0.5-4.5 m to estimate flow depth at every minute during the experiment. The relations between runoff hydrodynamic characteristics, including shear stress, stream power, unit stream power and unit energy of water-carrying section, and detachment rate were analyzed. The results showed that all the mean and instantaneous runoff hydrodynamic characteristics factors fitted the detachment rate well with different regressions equations except instantaneous unit energy of water-carrying section. The mean runoff hydrodynamic characteristics factors were better than those of average values for fitting with detachment rate. The optimal runoff hydrodynamic characteristics factor in our research was mean stream power because it was of the largest determination coefficient 0.97. The curve of linear regressions of mean shear stress and stream power with detachment rate became ascended because of collapse during the experiment process, which also led to a negative value for corresponding critical shear stress and stream power. By comparing results with that from a published paper that only considered the flow effect on soil surface in the same soil, the detachment rate directly estimated based on mean stream power were more reasonable than those estimated based on mean shear stress. The collapse could account for 90.93% of the detachment rate, indicating an important role of collapse during rill development process. The results provide valuable information for a better understand of the response of concentrate flow hydrodynamic characteristic factors to detachment rate and its corresponding erosion mechanism.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(41201270);; 国家科技支撑计划(2015BAC01B03-03);; 中国科学院西部之光人才培养计划项目(2014-91);; 陕西省科技统筹创新工程项目(2013KTDZ03-03-01);; 西北农林科技大学博士科研启动基金(2013BSJJ082)
【CateGory Index】: S157.1
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【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 7 Hits
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2 Li Yonghong;Niu Yaobin;Wang Zhengzhong;Gao Zhaoliang;Zhang Shaojia;Liu Zizhuang;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources;College of Water Conservation and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;College of Resource Environmental Sciences, Northwest A&F University;;Hydrodynamic parameters and their relationships of runoff over engineering accumulation slope[J];农业工程学报;2015-22
3 Wang Xuesong;Xie Yongsheng;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest Agricultural and Forestry University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science,Ministry of Water Resources;;Hydrodynamic characteristics of tapered spoilbank under simulated rainfall condition[J];农业工程学报;2015-01
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【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Xiao Hai;Liu Gang;Liu Puling;State key laboratory of Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateaus, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS&MWR;;Response of detachment rate of loess slope to hydrodynamic characteristics under concentrate flow condition[J];农业工程学报;2016-17
2 Shi Qianhua;Wang Wenlong;Liu Ruishun;Guo Mingming;Ouyang Chaobo;Li Jianming;Kang Hongliang;State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateaus, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources;Datum Technology Limited Company;Power China Zhong Nan Engineering Corporation Limited;Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute;;Effect of vegetation recovery measures on rill erosion of dump side slope in coal mine with different casting time[J];农业工程学报;2016-17
3 Li Jianming;Niu Jun;Wang Wenlong;Zhang Pingcang;Cheng Dongbing;Wang Yifeng;Zhang Guanhua;Guo Mingming;Soil and Water Conservation Department, Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute;State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources;;Differences in characteristics of runoff and sediment yielding from engineering accumulations with different soil textures[J];农业工程学报;2016-14
4 Dong Xu;Zhang Kuandi;Yang Mingyi;Gao Yanliang;Ma Xiaoling;State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau,Northwest A&F University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources;;Dynamics characteristics of rill flow on loess slope[J];中国水土保持科学;2016-03
5 Gan Fengling;He Binghui;Wang Tao;College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region,Ministry of Education;Central Southern China Electric Power Design Institute Co.Ltd of China Power Engineering Consulting Group;;Sediment characteristic of landslide accumulation body in earthquake zone of Wenchuan under artificial rainfall simulation condition[J];农业工程学报;2016-12
6 GAN Fengling;HE Binghui;WANG Tao;College of Resources and Environment,Southwest University,Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region,Ministry of Education;Central Southern China Electric Power Design Institute Co.Ltd of China Power Engineering Consulting Group;;Study on the characteristics of rainfall infiltration runoff using artificial simulation experiment in Wenchuan Earthquake Area[J];水利学报;2016-06
7 Lü Wei;Li Shuqin;Li Fahu;Lei Tingwu;College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering,China Agricultural University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,China Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources;;Laboratory study on soil erosion of loess convex and concave slopes with application of polyacrylamide[J];农业工程学报;2016-10
8 LI Guo;GUO Zhixue;LI Bin;HUANG Xiaoli;CHEN Ridong;State key Lab.of Hydraulic and Mountain River Eng.,Sichuan Univ.;;Experimental Study on the Variation of Flow Hydraulic Characteristics Under the Effect of Congeries[J];四川大学学报(工程科学版);2016-S1
9 WANG Xuesong;CHEN Xi;MA Hongchao;XIE Yongsheng;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Northwest A&F University;College of Natural Resources and Environment,Northwest A&F University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,CAS & MWR;;Hydrodynamic characteristics of engineering spoil bank slopes in the red soil region of Northern Jiangxi province,China[J];水科学进展;2016-03
10 WANG Pengfei;ZHENG Zicheng;ZHANG Xizhou;LI Tingxuan;LIN Chaowen;College of Resources,Sichuan Agricultural University;Soil and Fertilizer Institute,Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Science;;Characteristics and Infl uencing Factors of Rill Erosion in Slope Land with Contour Ridges during Maize Growing Season[J];土壤学报;2016-04
【Secondary Citations】
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1 Li Yonghong;Niu Yaobin;Wang Zhengzhong;Gao Zhaoliang;Zhang Shaojia;Liu Zizhuang;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources;College of Water Conservation and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;College of Resource Environmental Sciences, Northwest A&F University;;Hydrodynamic parameters and their relationships of runoff over engineering accumulation slope[J];农业工程学报;2015-22
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8 DING Ya-dong;XIE Yong-sheng;JING Min-xiao;TIAN Fei;WANG Xue-song;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Water Resources;College of Resources and Environment Science,Northwest A&F University;;Study on Sediment Erosion Law of Conical Scattered Spoilbank of Light Loam[J];水土保持学报;2014-05
9 LI Jian-ming;WANG Wen-long;HUANG Peng-fei;LI Hong-wei;State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateaus,Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Northwest A&F University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources;Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Conservation of Jiangxi Province,Jiangxi Provincial Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation;Zhejiang Design Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power;;Impact on erosion and sediment yield by gravel in pile body of development construction in Loess Area[J];泥沙研究;2014-04
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