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《Journal of Agricultural Catastrophology》 2011-01
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Research on Rice Planthopper

LUO Shou-jin(Information Research Institute of Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei,Anhui 230031)  
Rice planthopper belongs to Delphacidae,Homoptera,it main species include brown planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens Stal), white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horvath) and small brown rice planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén). Brown planthoppers are distributed in various rice growing regions of northern China, which are seriously occurred in the provinces (autonomous regions) in the south of the Yangtze River. The distribution area of white-backed planthopper is basically the same with more occurrence in the Yangtze River. Both planthoppers are also distributed in Japan, Korea, the South Asian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Small brown rice planthopper are largely occurred in rice regions in north, east and central China, which are also found in counties of Japan and Korea, etc. Three kinds of rice planthoppers are like to feed and reproduce in rice. Brown planthopper only occurs in rice plants, while white-backed planthopper and small brown rice planthopper can also feed on other crops such as wheat, sorghum and corn, etc. The most important feature to distinguish Delphacidae from the other similar families in Fulgoroidea is the presence of a big and active spur in the end of hind tibia. The important characteristic of Nilaparvata is the existence of small thorn in lateral basitarsus of hind tibia, so it can be distinguished from the other genera in Delphacidae. The common features of brown planthopper, white-backed planthopper and small brown rice planthopper are as follows: small size (body length less than 5 mm), jumping ability; conoid antenna; 2 large thorns in hind tibia with an active spur in the end. The male adult of brown planthopper is dark brown in facial region and mesonotum and light yellow-brown in pronotum, which is different from other common species of planthopper; its female adult is easily confused with white-backed planthopper, but the latter has rectangular vertex, and its forehead is the widest in the end; the male adults of white-backed planthopper is easily confused with female adults of small brown rice planthopper in appearance. Except a small amount of insect survive the winter in Hainan and the south of Guangdong and Guangxi, as well as southern Yunnan in China, rice planthoppers can not go through the winter in most other regions of China all round year, the initial insect sources in spring and autumn are mainly from abroad. The occurrence of pests is closely related to the factors such as temperature, humidity, feed and natural enemies. Climate is the dominant factor affecting the annual outbreaks, while micro-climate, feed and natural enemies in paddy field can cause difference in population density and damage degree among fields. The occurrence, reproduction and damage of white-backed planthopper are coincided with the growth period of rice. Usually, white-backed planthopper and brown planthopper have mixed occurrence, which have competition and interaction with each other in time and space position. In space, white-backed planthopper mainly feed on the upper and middle part of rice, while brown planthopper mainly cause damage in the middle and lower part of rice; in time, white-backed planthopper are mainly concentrated from the jointing stage to booting stage, while brown planthopper are mainly concentrated from late booting stage to filling stage. Further global warming in future has a greater impact on pests and diseases. The immigration range, immigration amount and immigration time of rice planthoppers have close relation with the activities of western Pacific subtropical high. Warm winter leads to the advanced immigration period of planthopper in overwintering area of China or outside borders in Vietnam, which also leads to the extended damage period. The years with heavy occurrence of brown planthopper in China mostly have strong subtropical high during March and May, and brown planthopper may be seriously occurred in the following year of El Nino year. Rice planthoppers can directly such sap, so that the growth of rice is delayed, and rice will be withered in clusters under severe condition, or even the stalks in whole field are died and lodged. In addition, oviposition will also stab plants, destruct conducting tissue, prevent the transportation of nutrients and spread the virus disease. The control of rice planthopper in agronomy includes breeding insect-resistant varieties, improving cultivation and management, degrading the habitats of planthoppers, protecting and using natural enemies. Rational mixed preparation and simultaneous control should be promoted in chemical control. The pesticides such as imidacloprid are forbidden in control of brown planthopper; pyrethroids and their complex pesticides are forbidden in control of pests in paddy field; triazophos pesticides should be used cautiously in the places with heavy occurrence of brown planthopper. When a variety of pests occur together, under the premise of meeting alternating medication,the pesticides effective to rice planthoppers and rice leaf roller which can simultaneously control other pests should be first considered to select,such as fipronil and its complex pesticides.
【CateGory Index】: S435.112.3
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