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《JOURNAL OF TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY(SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY)》 1999-11
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Critical flow in city gate and horseshoe conduit

MA Jiming, LIANG Haibo, LIANG Yuanbo Department of Hydraulic and Hydropower Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China  
Based on the basic critical flow equation, formulae, which used to determine section factor Z and hydraulic exponent M for critical flow in city gate and horseshoe conduits, were derived. Dimensionless curves showing the relation between the depth and Z , the depth and M , have been prepared to simplify the analysis and computation of critical flow. When the value of y/r was greater than 1.9, the curves showed that both conduits have approximately the same critical depth or discharge. In addition, the value of M varied within a rather narrow range for values of y/r less than 1.4. Theoretically it is impossible to maintain a critical flow in city gate and horseshoe conduit if the water surface approaches to the top of the circle. It should be noticed, however, that critical flow can still happen in them and that the wavy surface of it can touch the top of the tunnel if the water depth is higher.
【CateGory Index】: TV131.4
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