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Summer Asian-Pacific oscillation and its relationship with atmospheric circulation and monsoon rainfall.

ZHAO Ping1,2 CHEN Junmin2 XIAO Dong2 NAN Sulan2 ZOU Yan2 ZHOU Botao31. State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China 2. Institute of Climate System, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China 3. National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China  
Using the ERA-40 data and numerical simulations, this study investigated the teleconnection over the extratropical Asian-Pacific region and its relationship with the Asian monsoon rainfall and the climatological characteristics of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific, and analyzed impacts of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) heating and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) on the teleconnection. The Asian-Pacific Oscillation (APO) is defined as a zonal seesaw of the tropospheric temperature in the midlatitudes of the Asian-Pacific region. When the troposphere is cooling in the midlatitudes of the Asian continent, it is warming in the midlatitudes of the central and eastern North Pacific; vice versa. The APO also appears in the stratosphere, but with a reversed phase. Used as an index of the thermal contrast between Asia and the North Pacific, it provides a new way to explore interactions between the Asian and Pacific atmospheric circulations. The APO index exhibits the interannual and interdecadal variability. It shows a downward trend during 1958-2001, indicating a weakening of the thermal contrast, and shows a 5.5-year oscillation period. The formation of the APO is associated with the zonal vertical circulation caused by a difference in the solar radiative heating between the Asian continent and the North Pacific. The numerical simulations further reveal that the summer TP heating enhances the local tropospheric temperature and upward motion, and then strengthens downward motion and decreases the tropospheric temperature over the central and eastern North Pacific. This leads to the formation of the APO. The Pacific decadal oscillation and El Nio/La Nina over the tropical eastern Pacific do not exert strong influences on the APO. When there is an anomaly in the summer APO, the South Asian high, the westerly jet over Eurasia, the tropical easterly jet over South Asia, and the subtropical high over the North Pacific change significantly, with anomalous Asian monsoon rainfall and tropical cyclone activities over the western North Pacific. The summer cooling along the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River in the past 40 more years is related to the APO, which is possibly a regional response to the decadal variability of the global atmospheric circulation. An anomalous signal of the APO may propagate to the Arctic and Antarctic. Moreover, the APO also appears in other seasons.
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