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Environmental Changes and Human Activities since the Neolithic in Hochung,Sai Kung Area,Hongkong

YANG Shixiong1,ZHENG Zhuo1,TAN Huizhong2,ZHANG Zhenhong3,WANG Hong3,LI Jie1 (1.Department of Earth Sciences,Sun Yat-Sen University,Guangzhou 510275,China;2.Guangzhou Institute of Geography,Guangzhou 510070,China;3.Department of Anthropology,Sun Yat-Sen University,Guangzhou 510275,China)  
The excavation in Hochung,Sai Kung of Hong Kong has discovered rich remains that belong to the Middle-Late Neolithic age. This paper conducts analyses on the sedimentary features,pollen and phytolith in the profiles of this archaeological site and reconstructs palaeo environment and sedimentary process. Results show that sedimentary phases in the Hochung site altered from the river bank and lagune to floodplain swamp,and finally to crop land. The excavated pieces,and the study of pollen and phytolith all reveal that the Neolithic culture and economy style were characterized by fishing and hunting in Late Neolithic at about 4200-3500 a BP.,and there was no evidence of rice cultivation and other agricultural activities in this area. Pollen analysis shows that the rice cultivation did not occur until the Tang and Song Dynasties,and was gradually strengthened afterwards. The study also shows that the excavated site was not in situ a rice field during Tang and Song dynasties,and it became local paddy filed in the Ming and Qing dynasties and continued to the 1960s. Since the Tang and Song dynasties,the expansion of human agricultural activities has resulted in the damage of natural evergreen broad-leaved forest that was replaced by pioneer plants such as Dicranopteris and other secondary vegetation.
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