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《Acta Anthropologica Sinica》 1982-01
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PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HOMO ERECT US REMAINS FROM HEXIAN,ANHUI

Wu Rukang (Woo Ju-Kang) Dong Xingren (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanfhropoloyy, Academia Sinioa)  
The fossil materials studied here are Homo erectus remains found from Longtan-dong, Hexian county, Anhui province in 1980 by Huang Wanpo and others. They are an almost complete calvaria (PA 830), a fragment of left mandibular body with Ms and M3 in situ (PA 831), a right P4 (PA 832), a left M2 (PA 833) and the left Mi and Ms'of one individual (PA 834). The fossils belong to at least 3 individuals. The well-preserved calvaria is of young made individual, only most parts of crani base are missing. The morphological characters of the calvaria are as follows: The vault is low with cranial length approximating g-i length. The torus an-gularis is well-developed. The temporal squama is relatively high with arched parietal margin. The length-height index of the temporal squama is 60. The mastoid process is small and bends inward below the level of the mastoid crest. The supramastoid crest is well-developed and distinctly covers the underlying ellipitical external auditory meatus. The postglenoid process is not developed. The frontal is flattened and distinctly receding. The torus supraorbitalis is heavy and essentially continuous, its thickness is 12-19 mm with its thickest part in medial section. The frontal squama shows the bump-like protuberance as in Peking Man. The supratoral sulcus which separates the torus from ascending part of the frontal squama is present, but it is much less pronounced than that of Peking Man. Postorbital constriction is not so marked as in Peking Man and even less than Bali Man. Only the frontal has rather distinct sagittal ridge. There is no eminentia cruciata and so-called parasagittal depression. The maximum cranial breadth lies at the level of the supramastoid crest. The parietal tuberosity is prominent. The torus occipital is developed and so is the sulcus supratoralis. The angulation between upper and lower scales of the occipital is marked. No true external occipital protuberance exists. The frontal sinus is small. The tuberculin articulare is not distinct, The mandibular fossa is narrow and deep. The tympanic plate is very thick and sets medially. The 'axis of the plate forms a right angle with the mid-sagittal plane. The petro-median angle is about 60? No styloid process and vaginal process. The width of occipital foramen is at least 32mm, and its rim is distinctly elevated. The internal surface of the frontal has a low and wide frontal crest but no foramen caecum. The Sylvian crest is rather developed, which is located in the sphenoid angle of the left parietal. The cerebellar fossae are smaller than the cerebral ones with a ratio of the former to the latter aoout 3:4. The distance between the internal and external occipital protuberance is 22 mm. The groove for middle menin- geal artery shows that its ramus teniporalis is somewhat more robust than ramus fronto-parietalis and branches from both rami are' much less abundant than those in modern man. The body of mandible is robust, -especially very thick. Both crown and root of the teeth are large and robust except M3. There are many wrinkles on the occlusal surface of the crown but the cingulum is not very developed. Some of the measurements of calvaria, mandibular body and teeth as well as comparative data are listed in Tables 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The description of the skull shows that Hexian Man possesses many typical characteristics of Homo erectus and it belongs to Homo erectus. Further comparison of this specimen with other Homo erectus from China and Java indicates that it is more similar to Peking Man than to others, suggesting a closer relationship between them. Certain progressive characters of the Hexian skull are noted and it may be the somewhat advanced form of Homo erectus like later Peking Man. Some morphological differences between,the Hexian Man and Peking Man may be interpreted as local variations rather than the difference of subspecies. According te Huang et al. (1981), the geological period of Hexian Man site is Middle Pleistocene based on fauna.
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