BONE ARTIFACTS AND ORNAMENTS FROM XIAOGUSHAN SITE OF HAICHENG, LIAONING PROVINCE
Huang Weiwen (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Academia Sinica) Zhang Zhenhong Fu Renyi (Musuem of Liaoning Province) Chen Baofeng Liu Jingyu (Musuem of Anshan) Zhu Mingye Wu Hongkuan (The Bureau of Culture of Haicheng)
During the excavation of 1983, a number of bone artifacts and ornaments were dis-covered in company with mammalian fossils, human fossils and stone artifacts from the Paleolithic layers of Xiaogushan site. The brief description is given/below: 1. Harpoon A harpoon with two rows of barbs was probably made of a cannon bone of Artio-dactyla. It has a oblate-tapering point and a wedge-shaped base. The shaft is pentagon in cross section. The surface of the shaft shows numerous fine longitudinal striae which suggest it had been scraped into shape. Such a bone harpoon was not known to have occurred in China before Neolithic time. It is precisely of the same character as some of the harpoons from the late Mag-dalenian of Europe. 2. Javelin point A broken javelin point was made of the limb bone of an animal. Its surface is smooth and the cross section is oblatetapering. So far, similar specimen has never been recorded from Paleolithic China. 3. Bone needles Three bone needles described here are fine ones. Two of them were probably made of ivory and the third one was made of an animal bone. The surfaces are smooth. The shafts are curved and somewhat elliptical in section. The tips well rounded and sharp-ly pointed. The eyes on two specimens are nearly circular and made by drilling on two faces. The eye on the third one is not completely made. In China, such bone needle was only known from Upper Cave of Zhoukoudian. a Late Paleolithic site. The specimen of it is broken just at the eye. Judging from the remains, the eye was not made by drilling but by excavating or scratching with a poin-ted implement. 4. Perforated teeth Four perforated teeth described in this paper were made of canines of small Carni-vora or deer, one of them is only a piece of root. All of the holes are located at the root of the teeth and made by three different ways: drilling, scratching and scratching-drilling. The root was flated by grinding before making the hole. Compared with similar specimens of Upper Cave where 125 perforated teeth were found, the perforated teeth from Xiaogushan show a more advanced technique in making the hole. Not a single hole of specimen from Upper Cave might be attributed to dril-ling. 5. Perforated shell A broken perforated shell was found from the site. Its outline looks like a coin if preserved well. A hole in the centre was produced by drilling on two faces. There is a circle of radial cutting-fissures in its periphery. The red color is still visible from the fissures. Among the bone artifacts and ornaments mentioned above, most of them came from Layer 3 of the site, and the remaining came from Layer 2 under Layer 3. The age of the two layers can be attributed to Late Pleistocene based on mammalian fauna. Their absolute dating is from about 40.000 to 20,000 y. BP by radiocarbon and thermolumine-scence methods.