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《Acta Anthropologica Sinica》 1990-04
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REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL GRADUAL ADVANCE AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE OF PALEOLITHIC IN NORTH CHINA

Zhang Senshui (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100044)  
Since 1920, abundant paleolithic evidences have been found in North Chian. There are several industrial patterns or assemblages in different stages of paleolithic. Taking Qingling Range as rough boundary, the paleolithic industries found in North China are obviously different with those from South China. In each region there is one industry playing leading role and exerting influence to the regional paleolithic industry development. The industry consisting of many small artifacts was the main one from early to late paleolihic in North China, and the big and crude stone tools spreaded in a wide region and lasted for a long time in South China. Other assemblages are only local one which distributed in limited areas and are little significant to the evolution of paleolithic culture in China. The paleolithic main industry in North China is quite different from those found in Europe, southern and western parts of Asia. In North China the stone artifacts of main industry become smaller with irregular change of the length/breadth index while the stone artifacts develop along becoming small-sized with irregular change of the length/breadtht index in Europe. In addition, the artifacts of different stages existt some disparities in the type and technique between the East and the West. In North China, people of middle paleolithic produced stone artifacts with techniques similar to those prevailing in early paleolithic so that the cultural advance is very slow at that time. In late paleolithic, some prehistorical people still used the traditional techniques for producing artifacts and the industry is still relatively primitive. After about 30,000 years B.P., other people had clearly adopted some new techniques from the neighboring areas or invented new techniques on the basis of the old tradition, the former is shown by the utilization of Mousterian technique with which stone tools are well trimmed and have regular shape, and pressure technique for flaking blade and micro-blade, they even assimilated the method of making projectile pointed tools, while the latter is shown in producing bone tools and decorative objects. All of these resulted is a great advance in the paleolithic industry in China. At the same time the traditional paleolithic industry in North China spreaded to South China and made the late paleolithic much more diversified in that region. The paleolithic industry found in North China did not change step by step as those found in Europe and appeared as a relatively stable in middle paleolithic. How should thus really be dealt with? Two causes, at least, are suggested to be responsible for this phenomenon, namely, the cultural succession affecting the cultural creation and the scarcity of cultural exchange with the neighboring areas in early and middle paleolithic. Besides, the quality of raw material is also a factor responsible for it.
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