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《Human Geography》 2003-02
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BAI Guang run (Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China)  
Culture and civilization are two different concepts which are often misused. Culture refers to alteration to the nature conducted by human beings. Civilization means progress degree of human beings, compared with wildness and originality, including material and spirit aspects. By analyzing the background under which ecological culture and ecological civilization emerged, the author points out that the physical process (agro civilization era), chemical process (industrial civilization era) and life process (characterized by the emergence of clone technique). It also elaborates the connotations and the differences between ecological culture and ecological civilization. Ecological culture refers to the especial culture under the effects of natural environment, which includes material culture, behavior culture and spirit culture. It considers ecological civilization as the most prevalent and the most important progress of human beings on relationship between human beings and nature, which are represented by two aspects: the first is new concept brought out by consciousness of relationship between human being and nature, the second is value concept and behavioral culture which were derived from the former concept. Ecological civilization has experienced utilitarian era, ecological civilization era based on anthropocentrism (the shallow ecology movement) and ecological civilization era based on nature values (the deep ecology movement). It points out that individual character principle is of eternal values, and the task of overcoming the crises of culture diversity under the influence of western culture is the insistent responsibility of human culture development. At last, The author gives out the methodology for the study on ecological culture and ecological civilization, and analyzes two aspects of ecological civilization construction--construction of material ecological civilization and that of spirit ecological civilization.
【CateGory Index】: K901.6
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