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ZHANG Jin_tun, QIU Yang, ZHENG Feng_ying (Institute of Loess Plateau,Shanxi University,Taiyuan 030006,PRC)  
Landscape ecology is a relatively new branch of ecology and is becoming more and more important in this field.It is a discipline concerning landscape structure,landscape functions and landscape dynamics.The study core of landscape ecology is landscape pattern analysis on different scales,including spatial scale and temporal scale.Quantitative methods are essential to development of landscape pattern study.Numerical methods are of increasing importance in landscape ecology.The development of numerical techniques has been remarkable in the last twenty years.This paper intends to review the development of quantitative techniques in landscape pattern analysis,and to introduce the most common and the latest methods in the following groups:(1)Techniques for studying a single patch.Single patch is the basic characteristic of a landscape and its formation is usually related to single environmental variable.Therefore it is significant meaningful in ecology to describe its feature.Quantitative description of single patch includes the indices as follows:patch form, elongation,circularity, compactness, and development etc.(2)Techniques for studying patterns of a single landscape element.A landscape is consisted of many elements.Each landscape element has its own charateristics.The patterns of landscape elements are most important in landscape pattern analysis and many scientists have paid much attention to this kind of pattern analysis.Much more quantitative methods have been invented to study the pattern of landscape elements.This paper reviews techniques for analyzing landscape pattern such as variance analysis of continuous quodrats,spatial autocorrelation analysis,variogram and corregram,kriging analysis,spectral analysis,wavelet analysis,patch gap analysis,trend surface analysis, etc.(3)Techniques for studying landscape mosaic structure.Mosaic structure is the comprehensive feature of a landscape. The measures of mosaics reflects relationships of landscape elements,environmental variables and their construction and distribution.Some measures focus on the neighborhood,or on arrangement of the whole landscape.The spatial pattern in mosaics is numerous and complex and is a worthy research frontier.Many papers have been published in the study of mosaic structure of landscape recently.And its theory has been applied to landscape planning.Here we describe some common measures such as landscape diversity(including comprehensive diversity,dominance,richness,relative evenness of landscape types, etc.),landscape boundary measures(including edge ratio,relative dissmilarity of two landscape types etc.),indices of patch arrangement pattern (including patch isolation,contagion,fragmentation of different landscape types etc.)and so on.These methods mentioned above are most popular and common used in landscape pattern analysis.Some are newly developed in the past decade.Many methods are firstly described in Chinese literature and therefore are particularly useful for Chinese scientists.
【Fund】: 山西省自然科学基金!( 991 1 0 0 );; 山西省学科带头人基金!( 97-0 6)
【CateGory Index】: Q149
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