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《Journal of Hydroelectric Engineering》 1983-03
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Gong Zheng-ying Liu Shu-kun Gao Zhi-Zhang Institutte of water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power Research  
Ordinary gate piers have either tapered or butt ends. Mr.Gong Zheng-ying, on the contrary, proposed a flaring of the pier tails, thus producing a contraction to the flow passage at the exit of the piers. This contraction by the so-called flaring gate piers is to be of such magnitude that shock waves form on the flow and result in large difference between the inclinations of the surface and bottom streamlines. This large difference in the directions of flow, in turn, brings about a large expansion of the jet in the vertical plane jet which, in combination with the lateral contraction, transforms the into a high wall of water, leaving large stretch of the spillway downstream of the piers practically dry. Besides being distinctly three-dimensional in nature, the narrow and thick jet can entrain much more air because it has large lateral areas. Experiments indicate that if a spillway carrying such jets terminates in a smooth flip bucket, the jets after passing the bucket will be dispersed to a much greater extent than the same flow Passing through conventional gate Piers (Fig. 3). Thus more energy dissipation is achieved through greater degree of mixing in the water cushion downstream, as evidenced by a reduction in scour. When the spillway terminates in a stilling basin, experiments also indicate that with the flaring gate Piers,considerably shorter basins may be employed, or, for the same basin, flow in the basin will be quieter and deeper and the scour downstream will be reduced. Flaring gate Piers have been constructed at Panjiakou Dam and is being considered for Ankang Dam,
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