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《Food Science》 2013-15
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Progress and Prospect of Overnutrition on Metabolism and Human Wellness

PANG Guang-chang,CHEN Qing-sen,HU Zhi-he,XIE Jun-bo(Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Biotechnology,College of Biotechnology and Food Science,Tianjin University of Commerce,Tianjin 300134,China)  
G protein coupled receptors(GPCRs) are developed for organisms to uptake enough foods during evolution.As a primary nutrition sensor system,GPCRs are expressed in endocrine cells within the gut mucosa,and absorb nutrients and quantitate them with voltage-gated calcium channels,sodium potassium pump and vegetative nervous system.These signals are transmitted to brain for appetite control.GPCRs also coordinate with other chemosensory signaling elements.The release of hormones can regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.The malfunction of GCPRs may be responsible for a variety of metabolic dysfunctions associated with overfeeding or obesity.In addition,another nutrient sensor system,mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR) has been implicated as a sensor of nutrient sufficiency for dividing cells and is activated by essential amino acids,glucose and lipids.mTOR is also involved in the mechanisms for efficient transition between anabolic states and catabolic states.When nutrients are absorbed,the glucose will be transformed into liver glycogen or muscle glycogen for future utilization,and the lipids will be stored in adipose tissue.The glycogen will be used in pyrophosphorolysis and the lipids will be consumed by β-oxidation when energy is needed.When the nutrition storage exceeds some limits,mTOR will activate many processes that generate or use a large amount of energy and glycogen.It is increasingly apparent that mTORactivated metabolism impacts most major cellular functions,thus playing an oversized role in regulating basic cell behaviors such as growth and proliferation,and many disease including cancer,obesity,and type 2 diabetes.Furthermore,there is a ubiquitous natural phenomenon that the lifespan of an organism is closely related to its metabolic activity.The higher the metabolism speed,the shorter the lifespan,and vice versa.In recent years,multiple studies have shown that calorie restriction can prolong lifespan,so overnutrition may not only induce multiple diseases but also shorten lifespan.This review describes recent findings regarding overnutrition-related diseases.The main purpose is to attract extensive attention and broaden academic interest.
【Key Words】: G proteincoupled receptors mTOR nutrition signaling pathway metabolic syndrome
【Fund】: “十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAD29B07);; 国家自然科学基金项目(30871951)
【CateGory Index】: R151.41
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