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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 1984-01
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Ma Shijun Wang Rusong(Research Center of Ecology, Academia Sinica)  
Ecological theory has been considered as one of the scientific bases for solving the major social problems of the day looming large over the world. Among the major social problems, food, energy source, human population, and natural resources required in the industrial construction and its relevant environment are all concerned directly or indirectly with social organization, economic situation, and natural environment on which man relies. The problem how to coordinate the environments of urban areas and their surroundings is now more prominent with the rapid growth of urbanization in recent years. The social, economic and natural systems are different in their characters and have their own structures, functions and developmental rules, but the existence and devlo-pment of each of them are conditioned by the structures and functions of the others, so it is obvious that the above complex problems can be regarded as neither social nor economic ones separately, but as ones of the social-economic -natural complex ecosystem. This complex system has become a form commonly present in man's economic society.It should be a common task for all of sociologists, economists, ecologists, urban planners, managers and policy makers,and also a key to the major social problems of the day to study the crisscross relationships between these subsyst-ems; the process of changes in the materials, energy and information between them; the tendency of their past, present and future succession; and the dynamic relationships between their benefit, risk and opportunity.This paper deals with the characteristics of this complex ecosystem, and the crisscross relationships between these subsystems, such as the cycling of materials in the soil-plant-atmosphere subsystem; the coordination of the relationships between social infrastructure-economic development-environmetal quality, the proportion in which agriculture, industry and commerce are developed; the equilibrium system of production, processing, and consumption of substances; and the harmonization and allocation of the quantity of wastes recovered, transformed and regenerated. This paper also provides an index for measurement of the complex ecosystem. It is very important that the index must reflect a holological approach, in other words, it must be aimed at integrating the relationships between the components of the complex system rather than describing the components of that system in detail. Emphasis must be put on exploration not only of the growth of the quantity in the system but also of its function and developmental tendency. Therefore, the shackles of the traditional causalities and of the traditional methods for making monoobjective policy must be smashed to analyse multiobjective and multiattribute policies which have been made. The objective set of the complex ecosystem is composed of the indexes of the three subsystems as follows.1 ) Whether the normal circulation and regenerative function of materials can be maintained in the natural subsystem.2 ) Whether the desired economic benefits can be achieved in the economic subsystem.3 ) Whether the social subsystem has higher efficiency aud is accessible to the people.In addition, the decision procedures are discussed and some of the current cases in China are provided in this paper.
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