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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 2001-07
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Hyperaccumulators and phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil:a review of studies in China and abroad

WEI Chao Yang,CHEN Tong Bin (Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China)  
It has been estimated that more than 20 million hectares of farmland have been contaminated in China,accounting for 20% of the total in the country.Furthermore,a reduction of more than 10 million tons of food supplies results from this soil contamination.Techniques currently employed control soil contamination include cover with improted soil,application of lime and chemical washing.However,most of these are expensive,labour intensive and can result in further contamination problems or leaching/deposition of nutrient elements during in situ treatment.Phytoremediation,a technique using plants to remove contamination from soil and water,has become a topical research field in the last decade as it is safe and potentially cheap compared to traditional remediation techniques.Based on information from the Phytoremediation Bitiliography produced by the US EPA,in 1977 there were only 7 reports published relating to phytoremediation,whereas in 1997,the total literature of phytoremediation increased to 214. In 1583,A.Cesalpino,an Italian botanist discovered an unusual plant which grew on soils over ‘black stone’(ultramafic rocks).This was probably the first ever report of a metal hyperaccumulator plant.It was later named as Alyssum bertolonii in 1814 by Desvaux and the nickel content of its leaves was reported as 7900 μg/g in 1848 by C.Minguzzi and O.Vergnano.Similar plants,designated ‘indicator plants’,such as Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun,a copper accumulator,were discovered early in China and employed in prospecting for copper mineralization.R.R.Brooks,a geochemist from New Zealand first named these special accumulator plants ‘hyperaccumulators’ in 1977,and in 1982 R.Chaney from the USA first suggested the concept of phytoremediaton using these hyperaccumulators.A hyperaccumulator has been defined by Baker and Brooks(1989)as a plant that can accumulate cadmium100 μg/g,cobalt,copper,nickel,lead1000 μg/g,manganese and zinc10000 μg/g in their shoot dry matter.Furthermore,an operational definition was proposed by Baker(1981)that in accumulator plants the metal contents in shoots are invariably greater than that in rooots,showing a special ability of the plants to absorb and transport metals and store them in their above ground parts.To date,more than 400 species of metal hyperaccumulator plants have been reported in the literature.Among them,315 are nickel hyperaccumulators,24 are copper hyperaccumulators but the numbers of other metal hyperaccumulators for other metals are low and they are restricted in their distribution in some specific localities in the world. The hyperaccumulators are mostly discovered in the heavy metal contaminated area such as mining and smeliting localities.The author of this paper suggests that there may exit some “potential hyperaccumulators” on the earth.More attention should be paid to some plants that growing in some relatively “low” heavy metal content areas.The plants may not have very high tolerance but may have some extent degree of accumulation,by culturing the plants and adding some kinds of reagents in their growing media,they may reveal character of hyperaccumulation. A systematic survey of plant and soil chemistry in the copper mining areas along the lower middle reaches of Yangtze River has revealed a few copper accumulators such as Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun, Commelina communis L.and Rumex acetosa L.;the maximum leaf copper contents are 600,160 and 100 μg/g(dry matter basis)respectively,for copper contents in the soil around their roots ranging from 5000 to 20000 μg/g.We initiated pioneering research on hyperaccumulators and phytoremediation in China early in 1998.Several surveys were conducted in south China,and through systematic field investigation and glasshouse studies,we have now identified a hyperaccumulator of arsenic Pteris vittata L.(Chinese brake fern).This is the first hyperaccumulator discovered in China.Unlike other reported hyperaccumulators,this plant can reach 2 m in height,with a fresh shoot biomass of up to 36t/km 2.T
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金 ( 4994 1 0 0 3 4 0 0 71 0 75);; 中国科学院知识创新工程重点方向资助项目 ( KZCX2 -4 0 1 )
【CateGory Index】: X173
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