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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 2001-09
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Marine environmental indexes related to mangrove growth

ZHANG Qiao Min,SUI Shu Zhen,ZHANG Ye Chun,YU Hong Bing,SUN Zong Xun,WEN Xiao Sheng (Open Laboratory of Marginal Sea Geology and Paleoenvironment,South China Sea Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou 510301,China).  
Based on literature search and field investigations,the influences of 5 marine environmental factors such as temperature,salinity,sediment,tidal inundation and wave energy on mangrove distribution and growth are studied in general and on level of species to some degree.Their leading control roles are discussed and some potential indexes related to mangrove growth are proposed definitely. (1)Air or seawater temperatures have a control on the latitudinal distribution of mangroves.In global pattern,mangroves flourish on tropical coasts with winter seawater temperature above 20℃,but some cold resistant species can naturally extend polewards to 31° 34′ N (Japan),32°20′N (Bermuda Islands),38°54.8′S(Australia) and 38°03′ S(New Zealand),or even further to 34°38′N(Japan) and 41°13′S(New Zealand) by artificial trasplantation.These species are capable of tolerating minimum temperature as low as about 10℃ in Brasil and New Zealand,and the lethal temperature is -3.0℃.In China the northern limit of Kandelia candel, the most cold resistant mangrove species in east Asia,reaches the Fuding County of Fujian Province at 27° 20′ N for natural communities and the Leqing Bay of Zhejiang Province at 28° 25′ N for transplanted and survival communities,where the January air temperatures are 9.8℃ and 9.3℃ and the January seawater temperature 10.9℃ and 10.6℃ respectively.Mangrove species have different cold resistance and can be accordingly divided into three ecological groups:thermophilic eurytopic,thermophilic stenotopic and cold resistant eurytopic. (2)Seawater salinity is a control factor for mangrove distribution upstream along estuaries and tidal rivers.The field investigations on mangrove distributions and seawater salinities of the Suixi River in Zhanjiang City and the Sanya River in Sanya City show that along an estuary or a tidal river,flourishing mangroves can reach upstream where brackish water is dominant during most time of a year (salinity usually 2.0 in summer and 15~20 in winter),and scattered stands of mangroves mixed with fresh water vegetation can reach further upstream to brackish water limit of dry season and spring tide,which may be only 10km upstream in the Suixi River of Zhanjiang City,the Sanya River of Sanya City and the Jiulongjiang River of Fujian Province,but as far as 300km upstream in the Fly River of Papua New Guinea.In general,mangroves can grow on tidal flats with a wide range of pore water salinity (0~90).Thus mangrove species can be divided into different ecological groups:euryhaline and stenohaline,or upper,middle and lower reaches along an estuary or a tidal river. (3)Mangroves can live on all types of sediments ranging from soft mud to even gravel or rock,but mud flat is most favorable for mangrove growth.Though the relation between mangrove species and sediment types has been studied in many works,the critical index for sediments is not clear yet. (4)Transverse distribution patterns of a mangrove and its species on tidal flats are determined generally by its adaptability to tidal inundation and a series of corresponding physical and chemical environmental gradients.Based on the leveling survey at 14 flat transects of 4 mangrove stands and also on the observation and analysis on local tidal data,mangroves can only occupy the tidal flats between the mean sea level (of slightly above) and the mean higher high water of tropic tide.Their corresponding inundation frequencies are 47 5% and 2.9% respectively at the Dongzhaigang Harbor of Hainan Island.There are corresponding seaward ecological series of mangrove species. (5)Coastal wave energy is a main factor for mangrove distribution along shore from sheltered bays to open coasts.A coastal wave energy indes, W = (V 2 iF iL i) ,is proposed here,of which V for mean wind velocity (m/s), F for wind direction frequency (%), L for length of wind fetch (km,when L 30km,taking L =30km), i for 16 wind directions.Taking mangroves distributed in the Leizhou Bay of Zhanjiang City and the Lingdingyang
【Fund】: ‘九五’国家科技攻关 (96-0 0 7-0 3 -0 4 );; 广东省自然科学基金 (970 2 70 )资助项目
【CateGory Index】: S718.5
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