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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 2002-04
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Dynamic Change of Groundwater Level in Waterlogged Gleyed Paddy Soils in Hilly Red Soil Region and Its Effects on Availability of Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorus

XIANG Wan-Sheng 1,2 , LI Wei-Hong 2, TONG Chen-Li\+2, WU Jin-Shui 2,LI Xue-Yuan\+1 1.Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan,430070,China; 2.Changsha Institute of Agricultural Modernization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125,China).  
Gleyed paddy soil is a major type of low yield paddy soil in hilly red soil region in south China. It mainly results from the high groundwater level and poor drainage due to low topographical location. In addition, inappropriate management is another factor attributed to its formation. There has been much work on the formation,physical and chemical characteristics,nutrient supply and amelioration of gleyed paddy soil.However, very little information is available on changes in groundwater level and its effect on available nutrients in gleyed paddy soil.In this paper,yearly changes of groundwater level in waterlogged gleyed paddy soil in a hilly red soil region and its effect on availability of soil nitrogen(N) and phosphorus (P) were determined in field and laboratory studies.Based on the differences of groundwater characteristic, topographical feature and gleying intensity of soil formation, gleyed paddy soils in hilly red soil region can be classified into three major types: i.e. pappy gleyed paddy soil, cool gleyed paddy soil and grey gleyed paddy soil. From August 1997 to July 1999, some observatory wells for measuring groundwater level in the three major types of gleyed paddy soils were set up to study yearly change of groundwater level in a hilly red soil region in northern Hunan Province, China. It was found that the groundwater level reached the highest during the rain season April to August, and the lowest during January to March and September to December.between rainfall and irrigation. There was a significant correlation between the height of groundwater level and monthly rainfall.Double early rice,which was grown from May to July,was damaged more severely by high groundwater level than double late rice,which was grown from August to October,in waterlogged gleyed paddy soils.Based on the characteristics of groundwater level change,gleyed paddy soils can be classified into two categories:i.e.stable and unstable groundwater level.For the gleyed paddy soil with a stable groundwater level,groundwater level remained above the plow pan or even reached the soil surface all the year round.Pappy gleyed paddy soil can be included in this category.For the one with an unstable groundwater level,its groundwater level changed more frequently with the change of rainfall,which could reach the cultivated horizon or even the soil surface during the spring and summer season and drop to 70 cm below the soil surface during autumn and winter season.Cool gleyed paddy soil and grey gleyed paddy soil can be included in this category.It was suggested that different water management techniques should be adopted for each category of gleyed paddy soil with different characteristics of groundwater level.A wetting irrigation technique is suitable for the gleyed paddy soil with a stable groundwater level,i.e.the cultivated horizon will be kept saturated by minimum irrigation and free water layer in the field will be avoided during the whole period of rice growth.On the other hand,for the gleyed paddy soil with unstable groundwater level,wet-dry intermittent irrigation technique should be applied,i.e.20~30 cm water layer should remain in the field before ear sprouting stage and the cultivated horizon will be kept wet thereafter.Soil samples of cultivated horizon were taken around the observatory wells while the groundwater levels were measured.Soil available N(alkali-hydrolyzable N),soil available P(Olsen-P) and different chemical forms of inorganic P(Al-P,Fe-P,Ca-P and O-P) were analyzed.Correlation analysis showed that available N and P in gleyed paddy soil were significantly positively correlated with the depth of groundwater level (r 1=0.79 ** ,r 2=0.82 ** ,repectively),which demonstrated that the availability of N and P in gleyed paddy soil decreased with groundwater level rising.According to the correlation equations,it is predicated that soil avalilable N and P would decrease 7\^6 and 1\^1 mg/kg respectively if the groundwater level rises 10 cm.The groundwater levels not only influence the availability of soil N and P,bu
【Fund】: 国家“九·五”攻关专题资助项目 ( 96 -0 0 4 -0 3-0 2 ) ;; 国家重点基础发展规划资助项目 ( G19990 1 1 80 2 )
【CateGory Index】: S153
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