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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 2003-12
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Effects of changing grain size on landscape pattern analysis

SHEN Wei-Jun~(1,2), WU Jian-Guo~2, LIN Yong-Biao~1, REN Hai~1, LI Qin-Fen~1(1. South China Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China; 2. School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1603, USA).  
Spatial heterogeneity is ubiquitous across all scales of natural systems. Spatial pattern/heterogeneity is also scale dependent, i.e., spatial heterogeneity exhibits various patterns at different scales, therefore the observed pattern/heterogeneity is dependent on the scales of observation or analysis.Scale effects mean how ecological properties change with scales. Effects of changing scale on spatial analysis have been studied for decades in geography and ecology. The main goal of this study was to validate the scaling relations darived in our previous studies by analyzing additional real and simulated landscapes.To systematically investigate the effects of changing grain size on landscape pattern analysis, we chose two real landscapes (Northern Guangdong vegetation landscape representing relatively natural and undisturbed landscapes and Phoenix urban landscape representing highly managed and human- dominated landscapes) and 27 simulated landscapes generated by using the SIMMAP neutral landscape model. Three factors and three levels of each factor were considered while creating the simulated landscape maps. The first factor was patch richness (or number of classes), including three levels: 2, 5, 10. The second factor was class dominance (i.e., the proportion of the whole landscape area occupied by a particular class or patch type), including one-dominated, systematically decreasing, and equally dominated. The third factor was spatial distribution of patches, including clumped, moderately clumped and randomly distributed. These 29 landscapes represented a variety of landscapes with different spatial pattern characteristics. For changing grain size, we kept the extent the same as the original data sets (750 by 750 pixels for simulated landscapes and 1200 by 1200 pixels for the two real landscapes). Grain size was systematically changed from 1 by 1 to 100 by 100 pixels following the majority rule. We examined 18 landscape indices (see the next paragraph). The landscape pattern analysis package, FRAGSTATS 3.0, was used to compute the 18 selected landscape metrics. In total, these metrics were examined at 696 single scales for the 29 landscape data sets.The results in this study confirmed the scaling relutions found in our previous stueies.Based on the shape of the scale effect curves and scaling relations, the 18 landscape indices in this study were divided into three groups/types. Type I indices decreased monotonically with increasing grain size, showing a power-law decay scaling relation, with the characteristics of spatial pattern having little impact on scaling relations. This group included 9 landscape metrics: number of patches, patch density, total edge, edge density, landscape shape index, patch size coefficient of variation, area-weighted mean patch shape index, mean patch fractal dimension and area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension. Type II indices also decreased with increasing grain size, but not monotonically. There was no single scaling relation for each index, and scaling relations were related to spatial patterns, mainly influenced by the interactions of class dominance and spatial arrangement of patches. This group included 5 metrics: mean patch shape index, double-log fractal dimension, patch richness, patch richness density and Shannon's diversity index. Type III indices increased with increasing grain size. The shapes of the scale effect curves were various. There were three to five scaling relations for each index, and the scaling relations were mainly influence by class dominance. With increasing equality of class dominances, the scaling relations changed from staircase increase to logarithmic increase to linear increase to power law increase. There were 4 indices in this group: mean patch size, patch size standard deviation, largest patch index and contagion.Type I and II indices were very sensitive to grain change and decreased dramatically with increasing grain size below a critical value, whereas Type III indices increased dramatically with increasing grain size below a critical value. Spatia
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金资助项目 (3 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 ) ;; 广东省自然科学基金资助项目 (0 1 0 5 5 1 ) ;; 鹤山站开放基金资助项目 ;; 美国国家环保署 (R82 7676-0 1 -0 ) ;; 美国国家科学基金资助项目 (DEB97-1 483 3 )~~
【CateGory Index】: Q149
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