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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 2012-03
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Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the glacier regions of Northwest China:a case study of Glacier No.1 at the headwaters of Urumqi River,Tianshan Mountains

WANG Shengjie1,ZHANG Mingjun1,2,WANG Feiteng2,LI Zhongqin 1,2 1 College of Geography and Environment Sciences,Northwest Normal University,Lanzhou 730070,China 2 State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences/Tianshan Glaciological Station,Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,China  
The atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the cold region(especially in the glacier region) of Northwest China,which takes a vital role during the nitrogen cycle,may influence the regional ecology and environment.And the long-term systemic observation on nitrogen deposition in the glacier region is helpful for quantitative modelling of typical drainage basins in the High Asia.According to the continues sampling of wet deposition(fresh snow) on the eastern branch of Glacier No.1(43°06′N,86°49′E,4130 m above sea level) at the headwaters of Urumqi River in the eastern Tianshan Mountains from January 2004 to December 2006,the characteristics of atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in the glacier region of Northwest China were discussed,and the annual nitrogen wet/dry deposition of both inorganic and organic types was estimated.The results indicated:(1) The nitrate nitrogen(NO-3-N),ammonium nitrogen(NH+4-N) and total inorganic nitrogen(TIN) in the wet deposition varied seasonally.The nitrogen wet deposition from January to April was relatively low,and it increased significantly from April to May.With a little fluctuation,the nitrogen wet deposition was high from May to September,and the minimum of monthly deposition was 0.17 kg/hm2,0.04 kg/hm2,0.13 kg/hm2,for TIN,NO-3-N and NH+4-N,respectively.The nitrogen wet deposition decreased markedly after October,and kept at a low level from October to December.In the seasonal classification,the nitrogen wet deposition was highest in summer(June,July and August),and lowest in winter(November,December and January).The percentage of nitrogen wet deposition in summer was 54%,52% and 55%,for TIN,NO-3-N and NH+4-N,respectively.The nitrogen wet deposition correlated with precipitation amount significantly,and more than 93% of which occurred during the wet season(from April to October,with abundant precipitation in this period).(2) The NO-3-N / NH+4-N ratio of wet deposition ranged from 0.3 to 1,which was influenced by both the regional emission and atmospheric transportation.The spatial transportation was calculated by the HYSPLIT(Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory,which was developed by the Air Resources Laboratory,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of USA) model 4.9 at 8:00 and 20:00 in Beijing Time(0:00 and 12:00 in Coordinated Universal Time) during all the precipitation days from 2004 to 2006 in different starting heights.(3) The inter-annual variation was not obvious during the study period of three years,so the mean annual deposition was representative at the sampling site.The mean annual wet deposition of TIN was 1.51 kg/hm2 with 69% of NH+4-N and 31% of NO-3-N.Considering the dry/wet deposition in total,the mean annual deposition of TIN was 1.56 kg/hm2,with 1.07 kg/hm2 of NH+4-N and 0.49 kg/hm2 of NO-3-N.In addition,the estimated annual dry/wet deposition of total nitrogen(TN),including TIN and TON(total organic nitrogen),was 3.85 kg/hm2.The simulant value in this study corresponded well with the reported data of nitrogen deposition around the cold region in the West China.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(41161012 40701035);; 教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划项目(NCET-10-0019);; 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2010CB951003);; 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-EW-311)
【CateGory Index】: P343.6
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