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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 2018-03
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Effect of reclamation activity on coastal ecological environment: progress and perspectives

XU Caiyao;PU Lijie;ZHU Ming;School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences,Nanjing University;The Key Laboratory of the Coastal Zone Exploitation and Protection,Ministry of Land and Resources;  
Coastal wetland ecosystems are among the most productive yet highly threatened systems in the world. Being typical ecologically vulnerable zones,coastal wetland ecosystems are not only the most active area on earth's surface and are affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore,the severity of anthropogenic pressure on the environment is increasing. In recent decades,the reclamation of coastal wetland for agricultural and architectural land use has been a common practice worldwide. It has become an important method of meeting the increasing demand of space for living and development in China. This paper summarized the history and status quo of coastal reclamation briefly,analyzed the effects of reclamation activity on coastal eco-environment from the aspects of soil properties,biodiversity,land use and landscape pattern,ecological security,and ecosystem services. The present study showed that with the increase in time after reclamation,1)tidal flat soil accumulated nutrient in the process of desalinations and tended to become fertile; 2) plant species diversity increased,whereas terrestrial insects and soil animals gradually replaced macrobenthos and waterfowl,which constituted the typical biological communities in coastal wetlands; 3) land use transformed from natural land use to artificial land use,and the landscape pattern appeared to increase fragmentation and dominance index,while decreasing diversity; 4) during the transition of natural wetland ecosystem to terrestrial ecosystem,the provisioning value increased and provisioning was the only growth ecosystem service,but its increment was lower than the reduction from regulating,cultural and supporting,leading to the loss of total value of ecosystem service; 5) reclamation could increase ecological risk in terms of land and water resource security,biological invasion,natural hazard and other factors. Therefore,the trade-off between resource utilization and environmental conservation to realize the harmony between man and nature has been a key problem in coastal reclamation activity. Consequently,in the future,we should study the mechanisms underlying the effects of reclamation based on long-term stationary experiments for developing the meta-synthetic framework and integrated countermeasures system. In addition,further research on the effects of reclamation and exploitation on coastal eco-environment would be necessary.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金重点项目(41230751);; 国土资源部公益性行业科研专项(201511086)
【CateGory Index】: P756.8;X171
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