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《Biotechnology Information》 2004-04
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Advance in Starch Biosynthesis and Transgenic Modification in Crops

Shu Xiaoli Shu Qingyao (Laboratory of Mutational and Genomic Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029)  
Starch is the major storage carbohydrate in higher plants, and also the most important ingredient in food crops. Starch property varies greatly due to amylose to amylopectin ratio and amylopectin structure, which consequently influences its function and utility. In recent years, rapid progresses have been achieved towards the molecular biology of starch synthesis, nearly all related genes or gene fragments have been cloned. Starch synthesis starts with the formulation of Glucose-1-ADP catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and more glucose are added by various starch synthases, such as soluble starch synthase (SSS), starch branching enzyme (SBE), granule-binding starch synthase (GBSS). It is then modified by debraching catalyzed by debranching enzyme (DBE), and elongated to some extent catalyzed by SSS and finally forms into starch granules. It has been know that the amylose syntheses are catalyzed by GBSS, while amylopectin by all in concerts. All these enzymes above have found being in multiform, for instance, in maize endosperm, AGPase consist of big and small subunits, SBE has isoforms of SBEI, SBEIIa and SBEIIb, and SSS of SSI and SSIII(or SSIIa), and DBE of isoamylase and pullulanase as well. In addition, among different crops even cultivars, genes encoding each enzyme may be distinct, eg, GBSS is controlled by Wx a and Wx b in indica and japonica rice respectively. Furthermore, the growing environmental can affect the expression level of a certain gene, regulated at transcriptional level. These genetic and environmental factors have resulted in various types of starches. With the rapid developments of transgenic technology and understanding of molecular biology of the starch biosynthesis, it becomes possible to artificially regulate starch synthesis. And thus opened a novel way to breeding of high quality cultivars and producing starches with new prosperities. This paper reviews the newest advancement on molecular biological researches of starch synthesis and improvement of the starch qualities by using transgenic technology, and at last, its prospects were discussed in this fascinating area.
【CateGory Index】: S188
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