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《Acta Agronomica Sinica》 2014-05
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Effects of Water Management and Slow/Controlled Release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Biomass and Nitrogen Accumulation, Translocation, and Distribution in Rice

PENG Yu;SUN Yong-Jian;JIANG Ming-Jin;XU Hui;QIN Jian;YANG Zhi-Yuan;MA Jun;Rice Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China,Ministry of Agriculture of China;  
Slow/controlled release nitrogen(N) fertilizers provide gradual supply of nutrient for a relatively long period, resulting in improvement of fertilizer use efficiency and reduction of N leaching losses. Alternate wetting and drying(AWD) irrigation is a water saving technique widely adopted in irrigated rice(Oryza sativa L.) system. However, the influence of water management on the effect of slow/controlled release N fertilizers is not clear. In this study, field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 rice growing seasons under split-plot design. The main plot treatments were controlled irrigation(W1), alternate wetting and drying irrigation(W2), and flooding irrigation(W3). The subplot treatments were total N fertilizer applied before transplanting(F1), N splitting(before transplanting : tillering : spiking) ratio of = 5:3:2(F2), sulfur coated N fertilizer applied before transplanting(F3), and resin coated N fertilizer applied before transplanting(F4). The results showed significant interactions between water regime and slow/controlled release N fertilizers application on biomass, nitrogen accumulation, translocation and distribution and grain yield at main growth stages. Yield components had significantly positive correlations with N increment in panicle and N translocation and distribution at heading stage. Both slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizers and AWD resulted in enhanced biomass, N accumulation in plant and grain yield, and their interaction was significant. The N apparent use efficiency was much improved when slow/controlled release N fertilizers were used, which was as high as 42%–53% in F3 and F4 treatments. Besides, the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen, N agronomic efficiency, and yield of F3 and F4 were increased by 6%–23%, 26%–71%, and 8%–19% compared to those of F1 and F2, respectively. Response of rice yield to N fertilizer type and water regime was mainly through fertile panicle number and grain number per panicle. Under controlled irrigation, slow/controlled release N fertilizers had the advantages to increase N use efficiency, produce large panicle, and maintained adequate panicles. Under alternate wetting and drying irrigation, slow/controlled release N fertilizers improved N accumulation capacity and N distribution in rice plant, which resulted from slow release of N nutrient into soil during crop growth. Under flooding irrigation, slow/controlled release N fertilizers reduced ineffective tillering and N loss by leaching and penetration and increase fertile panicle rate. Under experimental condition, slow/controlled release N fertilizers in combination with alternate wetting and drying irrigation was the optimal treatment for high yield and high N use efficiency.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(31101117);; 国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目(2011BAD16B05 2012BAD04B13 2013BAD07B13);; 农业部作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室开放课题(201303);; 四川省育种攻关专项(2011NZ0098-15)资助
【CateGory Index】: S511.32
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