X Chromosome Inactivation in Mammalian
Shi-Yong Xu, Hong-Lin Liu(College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China)
In mammals, equal dosage of X-linked genes between the sexes is achieved by X chromosome inactivation in a random or imprinted manner in early embryonic development of females. It is a complex process including initiation, counting, choice and maintenance. X inactivation center is the master control locus of the X chromosome inactivation and regulates the early events of X inactivation. Once the X inactivation happened the inactivation state can be stably delivered to generations. This involves genome imprinted. In addition, in males, the X chromosome is inactivated together with Y chromosome in spermatogenic cells shortly before or during early meiotic prophase. This article reviews the recent advances in X chromosome inactivation in mammalian.