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《Journal of Psychological Science》 2011-04
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The Measurement of College Students' Time Management Tendency and Its Relationship to Culture Orientation

Liu Wen,Zhang Shanshan,An Ling (Department of Psychology,School of Education,Liaoning Normal University,Dalian,116029)  
How are the cultural norms reflected in the subjective experience of time and how can the value predict the subjective time patterns? The measurement of time management tendency,an important topic,is affected by culture.Time perspective refers to the subjective time representation,which relates the present behavior to future goals.Individualism-collectivism is the core of value.Two dimensions of cultural diversity have been found to be correlated with differences in the use of time:individualism-collectivism and power distance.Individualistic cultures foster the needs,wishes,and desires of individuals.As such they encourage autonomy and separateness,and appreciate orientation in tasks higher than orientation in persons.Collectivist cultures foster the needs,wishes,and desires in groups over individuals;and work gets done through webs of relationships.These cultures encourage values such as social harmony,cohesion,cooperation,and conformity.Cultures with high power distance("vertical" cultures) stress status differences and work-place hierarchies,whereas cultures with low power distance("horizontal" cultures) take hierarchies less seriously.The aim of the study was to investigate the structure of time management and its relationship with culture orientation.Thus,the study included the psychological as well as the economic perspectives.According to the time management theory,and the relevant questionnaire or scale,we put forward the theoretical structure of a time management questionnaire.We randomly selected 872 college students(484 females and 388 males) from four universities in Dalian.The participants filled two validated questionnaires in class,including the measurement of time management tendency,and Individualism-collectivism.It took about 30 minutes to complete the questionnaires. The correlations between factors were calculated by SPSS and the structure models were analyzed by AMOS.In the analysis of the structural equation modeling,the structure of the questionnaire about the measurement of time management tendency was constructed. The preliminary inquiry theory structure was analyzed by exploratory factors and confirmation factors.The results showed that(1) The Time Management Questionnaire included six factors:planning,delay time perspective,controlling,confusion tendency and resistance;(2) We also tested the reliability and validity of the questionnaire;the study indicatesd that the homogeneity reliability, split-half reliability and test-retest reliability were all very high,and concurrent validity was obvious;(3) Vertical Individualism can forecast the planning,controlling,confusion tendency.Vertical collectivism has significant positive effects on time perspective and stress.In this study,these findings demonstrated that the time management tendency about college students has 6 factors and is affected by culture orientation.From the culture psychology perspective,culture orientation is the effective predictor which guides how to use time and how to bring about achievement.These findings suggest that in order to improve the use of time in college students, it is crucial to establish the proper value.The results not only strongly reveal the characteristics of time management for contemporary college students but also largely support a chronic model of the structure of time management.
【Fund】: 德国The Chemnitz University of Technology“中德成人时间管理倾向”项目的资助
【CateGory Index】: B841.7
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