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《Journal of Psychological Science》 2014-01
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The Effects of Endurance Targets on Duration Estimation under Pain Condition

Xu Xiaodan;Zhang Ying;Huang Xiting;Zou Zhiling;Faculty of Psychology,Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of the Ministry of Education,Southwest University;  
Both duration estimation and pain have great significance for human survival. According to many researchers,duration estimation is influenced by many factors,including experimental paradigms,estimation methods,and pain condition. The majority of the previous studies which examined the duration estimation under pain condition adopted only the retrospective paradigm and verbal report method. So,firstly,we would like to explore more paradigms and estimation methods under pain condition. Experiment 1 examined the effect of paradigms and estimation methods on time duration estimation under pain condition. 54 undergraduates were required to put their hands in water and try to estimate the time duration( 12 seconds). A 2( experimental paradigm, retrospective vs. prospective) × 2( estimation method,verbal report vs. duplication) × 2( water temperature,3℃ vs. 31℃) design was used in Exp. 1. All subjects were administered with prospective experiment and then retrospective experiment. The results showed that there were significant main effect of water temperature,( F( 1,44) = 3. 84,p =. 056) and paradigm( F( 1,44) = 33. 51,p . 01). Duration judgments were significantly shorter under pain condition than under normal condition and prospective judgments were longer than retrospective judgments.In Experiment 2,based on the evidence that subjects with certain endurance targets would underestimate the pain intensity,we want to investigate whether the endurance target would improve duration estimation under pain condition. 57 undergraduates were randomly selectedin the experiment with a 2( experimental paradigm,retrospective vs. prospective) × 2( estimation method,verbal report vs. duplication) × 2( endurance target,3 minutes vs. no certain target) design. All subjects were required to put their hands in cold water( 3℃),and those in"3 minutes"group were told to try to persist 3 minutes,but the subjects in the other group were told to persist as long as they can. As in Exp. 1,all subjects need to complete the duration estimation task with retrospective paradigm and then prospective paradigm. The results showed that there was a significant main effect of endurance target( F( 1,44) = 4. 09,p . 05),the duration judgments was longer with specific target than that with no certain targets. The main effect of paradigm was also significant,F( 1,44) = 17. 02,p . 01,and the duration judgments in prospective paradigm was longer than that in retrospective paradigm.According to the results of the present experiments,the following conclusions can be drawn.( 1) Duration judgments under pain condition are significantly shorter than that under no pain condition.( 2) Under pain condition,subjects with endurance targets tend to estimate the duration significantly longer than those with no endurance targets.( 3) Under pain or no pain conditions,with or without certain endurance target,there are significant paradigm effects,with prospective judgments longer than retrospective judgments. The results of this study suggest that specific endurance target may help clinical patients to cope with pain.
【Fund】: 中央高校基本业务经费(swu1009104);; 西南大学211项目经费(TR201203-4)的资助
【CateGory Index】: B842
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