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《Journal of Psychological Science》 2014-02
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The Executive Function of Temporal Distribution:Evidence from the Dual Valence Association Task

Cao Guoguang;Chen Juan;Zheng Yong;Faculty of Psychology,Southwest University;Mental Health Education and Consultation Center,Chongqing Normal University;  
Time personality,which focuses on the personality characteristics and individual differences under the temporal context,was defined as a consistent adapting tendency and character of capabilities of individuals in time-related situations. It is a multi-level hierarchical structure of personality which was composed of four second-order factors as temporal obedience,temporal programming,temporal distribution and temporal tension. In the present study,using the technique of event-related potentials( ERPs),we applied the dual valence association task to investigate the impact of temporal distribution on executive function,and explored the temporal patterns of the brain activity when polychronic and monochronic individuals were performing the conflict task.Dual valence association task measures the interference effects presented in a double associative categorization valence task,that is,congruency / incongruence between emotional information presented in facial expressions and semantic information presented in words. Participants used two emotional valence evaluative tasks and were asked to categorize the emotional valence of positive / negative words or the emotional valence of positive / negative faces. The two-way repeated-measures analyses of variances( ANOVAs) on the accuracy( ACC) showed a significant main effect of Task type,that is compatible blocks produced higher ACC than incompatible ones.On the reaction times( RTs) however,the two-way repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed a significant main effect of Task type and Group. Compatible blocks showed shorter RTs than incompatible ones and polychronics responded faster than monochronics.The EEG was recorded from 64 scalp sites using tin electrodes mounted in an elastic cap( Brain Products),with the references on the left and right mastoids. The vertical electrooculograms( EOGs) were recorded with electrode placed above and below the right eye.Horizontal EOG was recorded from the right orbital rim. EEG and EOG activity was amplified using a DC ~ 100Hz bandpass and continuously sampled at 500Hz / channel. The EEG was band-pass filtered from. 01 to 16 Hz. All electrode impedances were maintained below 5kΩ. ERP averages were computed off-line. Trials with EOG artifacts( mean EOG voltage exceeding ± 80μV) and those contaminated with artifacts due to amplifier clipping,or peak-to-peak deflection exceeding ± 80μV were excluded from averaging.ERP waveforms were time-locked to the onset of stimuli and the average epoch was 1000ms,including a 200ms pre-stimulus baseline. EEG activity only for correct responses in each condition was analyzed. The early N170 component was measured and analyzed at 130 ~ 190ms using three-way repeated measures ANOVAs on average amplitudes,with Groups( polychronicity,monochronicity) as a between-subjects factor,and Task type( congruent,incongruent) and eletrodes( P7,PO7,P8,PO8) as the within-subjects factors. The late LPP component around 500 ~ 700ms was conducted the same analysis at 5 electrode sites( F1,Fz,FCz,Cz,F2).The repeated-measures ANOVAs on mean amplitude of N170 showed a marginal interaction effect between Group and Task type[F( 1,34) = 3. 27,p =. 08]. More specifically,a larger N170 was elicited in the incongruent condition than that in the congruent condition among the monochronics,suggesting that monochronics need to devote more attentional resources in face of the conflict task.As for the LPP component,monochronics showed higher positive amplitudes compared to polychronics,indicating the enhanced cognitive control processes of monochronics.
【Fund】: 教育部高校博士点基金(博导类)项目(20120182110001)的资助
【CateGory Index】: B842
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