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《Journal of Psychological Science》 2018-06
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Internalized Homonegativity among Homosexuals: Formation and Influence Mechanisms

Li Fang;Wang Yibo;Xing Jintao;Zheng Xue;College of Teacher Education and Psychology,Sichuan Normal University;School of Psychology,Center for Studies of Psychological Application,South China Normal University;  
In recent years, living conditions of homosexuals have attracted much attention from psychologists. Because homosexuals constantly stay in an environment filled with prejudice, they often internalize negative social attitudes and develop self-prejudice about their sexual orientation. This internal negative attitude toward one's sexual orientation is called internalized homonegativity. Internalized homonegativity is widespread among the homosexuals. It has been considered as the key risk factor for homosexual's mental health problem and physical health problem. Nowadays, comprehensive understanding of its formation and influence is in excessive lack. Therefore, we mainly review the formation and the influence of internalized homonegativity in this study.Firstly, we introduce the concept of internalized homonegativity. This concept was initially named as ‘internalized homophobia', which emphasized one's fear of his own homosexual orientation. However, more and more researchers hold the view that homosexuals' negative attitudes towards themselves do not conclude the element of fear, thus this concept has been advised to be named as ‘internalized homonegativity'. Nowadays, this concept is often understood as a process or a result. We define the internalized homonegativity as homosexuals' formed negative attitudes towards themselves through the process of internalization of external prejudice, which emphasizes both the process and the results. Secondly, we discuss the mechanisms of formation for internalized homonegativity. Two general mechanisms(role-taking and conflict resolution) and other influence factors(a series of individual factors and environmental factors) may explain the process of formation. We put forward an integrated theoretical model. In this model, we conclude that the processes of role-taking and conflict resolution play mediating roles between external prejudice and internalized homonegativity, while the other influence factors can affect the degree of exposing to prejudices, the process of role-taking and conflict resolutions, and the internalized homonegativity.Thirdly, we review the influences of internalize homonegativity from three perspectives: the conditions of mental health, physical health, and problematic behaviors. Overall, recent studies consistently show that internalized homonegativity has a negative effect on the living conditions of homosexuals. The psychological mediation model can account for the effect of internalized homonegativity on the condition of mental health. This model indicates that coping factors, interpersonal factors and cognitive factors all play mediating roles between internalized homonegativity and psychological distress. We infer that this mechanism can also be used to explain the effect of internalized homonegativity on physical health and problematic behaviors. Additionally, concealment of sexual orientation, which represents a special mechanism, can also play a mediating role between internalized homonegativity and living conditions of homosexuals. We also put forward an integrated model of influence mechanisms of internalized homonegativity.At last, we propose three future research directions.(1) Integrated models of formation and influence mechanisms of internalized homonegativity should be further verified and developed;(2) Protective factors which may be beneficial to buffer the negative effect of the internalized homonegativity should be collected;(3) Localization studies about internalized homonegativity should be developed. These future research directions are drawn from the limitations of the previous research.
【Fund】: 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地项目(12JJD190005);; 四川性社会学与性教育研究中心项目(SXJYC1803)
【CateGory Index】: B842
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【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 4 Hits
1 LI Fang;XING Jin-tao;WANG Yi-bo;NING Kai;ZHENG Xue;School of Psychology,Center for Studies of Psychological Application,South China Normal University;Mental Health Education and Counseling Center,Dongguan University of Technology;School of Education Science,Xinyang Normal University;;The Effect and Mechanism of Concealment of Sexual Orientation on Meaning in Life in Young Gays[J];中国临床心理学杂志;2015-06
2 ZHANG Jing;ZHENG Lijun;ZHENG Yong;Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University;;The Mental Health of Sexual Minorities: Theoretical Models and Research Orientations[J];心理科学进展;2015-06
3 Li Fang;Zheng Xue;Mai Xiaohao;Wu Junfang;Wang Yibo;School of psychology,Center for Studies of Psychological Application,South China Normal University;;Internalized Homophobia and Subjective Well-being among Young Gay Men: The Mediating Effect of Self-esteem and Loneliness[J];心理科学;2014-05
4 LIU Jun;ZHANG Jin-Fu(School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China);Review on Models of Homosexual Identity Development[J];心理科学进展;2009-02
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Li Xiaoshan;Fang Kun;Zhang Min;Du Guoping;Wu Sushu;Song Yue;Xu Yuanyuan;Yan Wenjuan;Ge You;Ji Yu;Wei Pingmin;Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University;;Influence of growing experience on non-heterosexual orientation among male college students in Nanjing[J];中华预防医学杂志;2017-07
2 Yi Liu;Yinjia Xiao;Department of Psychology,Wuhan University;;Gays' Cognition of Sexual Culture Pressure:An Exploring Narrative Research[J];生命叙事与心理传记学;2015-00
3 LI Fang;XING Jin-tao;WANG Yi-bo;NING Kai;ZHENG Xue;School of Psychology,Center for Studies of Psychological Application,South China Normal University;Mental Health Education and Counseling Center,Dongguan University of Technology;School of Education Science,Xinyang Normal University;;The Effect and Mechanism of Concealment of Sexual Orientation on Meaning in Life in Young Gays[J];中国临床心理学杂志;2015-06
4 ZHOU Wei;LUO Huang-jin;JING Kai;Psychological Counselling Center,Jiangxi College of Foreign Studies;;The Role of Social Supports on Depression of Different Sexual Orientation People[J];景德镇学院学报;2015-06
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7 Li Fang;Zheng Xue;Mai Xiaohao;Wu Junfang;Wang Yibo;School of psychology,Center for Studies of Psychological Application,South China Normal University;;Internalized Homophobia and Subjective Well-being among Young Gay Men: The Mediating Effect of Self-esteem and Loneliness[J];心理科学;2014-05
8 LIU Bo;LUO Dan;HUANG Cai-yi;LI Jie;XIAO Yi;CHENG Rui;CHEN Xi;XIAO Shui-yuan;Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Public Health School, Central South University;;Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behaviors among the Male College Student Who Have Sex with Men[J];中国临床心理学杂志;2014-04
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【Secondary Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
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5 WANG Xin-qiang;Chongqing Academy of Social Sciences;;Psychometric Evaluation of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire in Chinese Middle School Students[J];中国临床心理学杂志;2013-05
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8 Kong Feng,Wang Tingzhao,Li Caina,He Juan,Wang Jin,You Xuqun(College of Psychology,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi'an,710062);The Mechanism of the Influence of Social Support,Loneliness,and Self-esteem on Subjective Well-being[J];心理科学;2012-02
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