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《Acta Genetica Sinica》 1979-04
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THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF REMOTE HYBRIDIZATION --AN EVIDENCE OF THE HYPOTHESIS THAT DNA SEGMENTS OF DISTANTLY RELATED PLANTS MAY BE HYBRIDIZED

ZHOU GUANGYU GONG ZHENZHEN WANG ZIFEN (Shanffjtai Institute of Biochemistry, Academia Siniea)  
During the last 20 years in Chinese agricultural research, the method of ordinary pollination has been used to produce many stabilized hybrids (such as hybrids of Rice×Sorghum or Eice×Maize, etc.) containing chromosomes which are not different from their mother plants by light microscopy. Their phenotypes are in general essentially those of their female species. However, in app.earance and certain other characters such as resistance to insects and to disease and drought, productivity, spike size, shape, colour etc., they may show many alterations. Such changed characters are inherited and have been kept stable for at least ten generations. After extensive investigation, it seems that this phenomenon of hybridization between distantly related plants could not be explained simply by spontaneous mutation or segregation of the genetic impurities of the maternal plants. Instead, during hybridization there might have been some combination with foreign genetic material, probably segments of DNA from the pollen containing structural or regulatory genes or broken pieces which had already lost their original genetic function. They might have been integrated into the ovarian genome, bringing about changes in the maternal structural genes or their mode of expression, and then afterwards, certain of the characters of the crossbreed also changed. Since the structure and function of the chromosomes of distantly related plants, as a whole, are quite different, they may often be completely reciprocally exclusive, but from an evolutionary point of view, a certain partion of DNA or certain individual genes may show more 'or less af-finity, thus rendering them capable of recombination. To prove this hypothesis, we have chosen the F12-13 hybrids of Bice×Sorghum made by the Crop Breeding and Culture Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, to investigate the possible changes in the isozymes composition of the hybrids. Those hybrids which had been stablized and shown differences in the spikes, were selected from the offsprings of a single original hybridized grain. We used 34 of them for esterase isozyme. analysis, laying special emphasis on No. 77125. The chromosomes of No. 77125 have been extensively examined and shown to be the same as those of the maternal plant (Yinfang) under the light microscope. But No. 77125 is very tall (nearly 2 m) and bears a stout stem (more than 1cm in diameter) large spikes and full grains (Fig. 1). In its esterase electrophoretogram a new band (No. Ⅱ) was found which is identical in electrophoretic behaviors in the one of the sorghum (Hengjiali) bands (Fig. 2.), but absent in the electrophoretogram of the maternal plant. The No. Ⅱ band was found to be present in No. 77125 in all stages of development and in all parts of the plant. The mother plant has never revealed the No. Ⅱ band. In sorghum this band was present only in immature and mature seeds as well as in the first three days during germination.Among 140 different species of sorghum, more than 80% have the No. Ⅱ band of No. 77125. It seems that this band is one of the common characteristic bands of sorghum.In 34 hybrids (including No. 77125) we examined, eleven have the No. Ⅱ band. It seems that not all of the hybrids could preserve this isozyme. We examined 180 different species of rice of which 16% retained the No. Ⅱ band. It is thus not a common characteristic band of rice, but it has shown certain affinity with rice. In our hypothesis of DNA segment hybridization it is suggested that in distantly related plants the chromosomes as a whole may generally be reciprocally exclusive. But some DNA segments showing sufficient affinity might be hybridized occasionly to the maternal genome. The appearance of No. Ⅱ esterase isozyme in No. 77125 Hybrid may be an evidence for the transference of a structural gene from sorghum to rice. Alternatively, a regulatory effect from DNA segments of sorghum might have, stimulated a "silent gene" of rice to activity. We are inclined to take the former as the first possibility, but at the moment, the lat
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【References】
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1 HU Wen-ming1,2,XU Cui-lian1,WANG Yue-guang2(1.College of Plant Science and Technology,Tarim University,Alar 843300,China;2.Qingdao Agricultural University,Qingdao 266109,China);Studies of Transgenic Wheat D_1 by Introducing Spirulina Total DNA through Pollen Tube Pathway[J];Shandong Agricultural Sciences;2008-01
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1 NI Jian-fu OU Qiao-ming LING Li-jun YE Chun-lei CUI Wen-juan Institute of Biotechnology,Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Lanzhou,730072,China; WU Lu-guang School of Life Sciences,the University of Queensland,Queensland 4072,Australia;New Wheat Varieties Bred by Introducing Exogenous DNA into Wheat[A];[C];2008
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Chinese Journal Full-text Database 1 Hits
1 Group of Polyploid Breeding Program, Crop Department, Peking Institute of Agricultural Sciences;BREEDING OF OCTOPLOID TRITICALE[J];Acta Genetica Sinica;1974-01
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 8 Hits
1 Qiu Ming-guang Zhang Ting-zhen (Northwestern college of forestry);STUDIES ON ISOENZYME VARIATION AND THE EARLY SELECTION IN POPULUS CLONES[J];;1983-02
2 Chen Qifeng;Chen Zhang;Lin Xiejian;Ji Huiqiang Fujian Agricultural College, Puzhou 350002;STUDIES ON DIRECT TRANSFER OF DNA PLANT RECIPIENTS——Establishment and Review of A New Breeding Way[J];Discovery of Nature;1993-01
3 Chen Fangyuan Peng Yuehua Lu Shengan;ISOENZYME AND PHENOTYPE ANALYSIS ON THE STABLE STRAINS FROM THE HYBRID DESCENDANCES OF RICE AND CAUDATE THEMEDA[J];;1988-04
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6 Xu Xiu-lian Shen Li-ming Ling Xia-fen (Edible Fungi Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences);ESTERASE ISOZYMES ANALYSIS IN FRUITING BODY OF AGARICUS BISPORUS[J];Acta Agriculturae Shanghai;1985-02
7 Xue Qihan Shi Suyun Liu Aimin Yi Qionghaa (Institute of Agrobiological Genetics and Physiology,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences.Nanjing);Analysis of Peroxidase Isozyme on Ipomoea Species[J];Acta Genetica Sinica;1988-04
8 Xiong Quanmo;Analysis of Elrctrophoretic Data in Isozymes Studies and Its Application to Population Genetic.[J];Hereditas(Beijing);1986-01
【Secondary Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 1 Hits
1 Pao Wen-kwei Yah Yü-rui Wang Chong-yi (Institute of Crop Breeding and Cultivation,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Peking);INVESTIGATION ON THE BREEDING METHOD OF INDUCED POLYPLOIDS OF SOME CEREAL CROPS——Ⅲ.COLCHICINE TECHNIQUE FOR DOUBLING THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES IN WHEAT-RYE F_1 HYBRIDS[J];Acta Agronomica Sinica;1963-02
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