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《Petroleum Geology and Recovery Efficiency》 2020-03
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Pore structure and fractal characteristics of ultra-low permeability reservoirs in Yanchang Formation in Zhenbei area,Ordos Basin

ZHANG Quanpei;WU Wenrui;LIU Liping;YANG Hongmei;WANG Lianguo;XIE Yuhang;ZHU Yushuang;State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics/Department of Geology,Northwest University;No.5 Oil Production Plant,Changqing Oilfield Company,PetroChina;No.7 Oil Production Plant,Changqing Oilfield Company,PetroChina;No.2 Oil Production Plant,Changqing Oilfield Company,PetroChina;No.11 Oil Production Plant,Changqing Oilfield Company,PetroChina;Research Institute of Huabei Oilfield Branch,PetroChina;  
Seven ultra-low permeability core samples of Yanchang Formation in Zhenbei area,Ordos Basin are selected to carry out casting thin section,scanning electron microscope(SEM),X-ray diffraction,high pressure mercury injection and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR)experiments,respectively. The characteristics of pore throat distribution,pore type,mineral composition and its content of ultra-low permeability reservoirs are clarified. The fractal theory is used to study the fractal characteristics of reservoir pore throat,and the relationships between the fractal dimension and the reservoir physical properties,pore structure parameters as well as mineral composition and its content are systematically analyzed. The results show that the reservoir pore types are mainly residual intergranular pores,dissolution pores and intercrystalline pores.The mineral composition of the reservoir is dominated by quartz and feldspar,and the content of chlorite in clay mineral is the highest. According to the morphology of capillary pressure curve and displacement pressure,the reservoir pore structure can be divided into three types:Type I,Type II and Type III. The corresponding reservoir performance and percolation capacity become worse in turn,and the heterogeneity of pore structure gradually increases. The pore throat size distribution obtained by high pressure mercury injection has multi-fractal features. There are two obvious turning points in the fractal feature curve,which divides the pore space into macropores,mesopores and micropores. Compared with macropores and mesopores,the pore size distribution of micropores is relatively uniform and regular,and the corresponding fractal dimension is the smallest. NMR can provide a better characterization of the reservoir pore space. The pore throat distribution of the T2T2 cutoffsection does not have fractal features. The movable fluid pore space and effective pore of the T2T2 cutoffsection conform to the fractal structure,and the corresponding fractal dimension reflects the complexity of interconnected pores.The fractal dimension of reservoir pore throat has a good negative correlation with porosity and permeability,and also has a good correlation with pore structure parameters. The mineral composition and its content of reservoir are the internal factors that determine the size of fractal dimension,and then affect the reservoir quality and pore structure characteristics.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目“深水相高杂基对致密砂岩微观孔喉结构及渗流能力影响评价”(41802140);; “十三五”国家科技重大专项“鄂尔多斯盆地致密油资源潜力、甜点预测与关键技术应用”(2016ZX05046)
【CateGory Index】: P618.13
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