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《China Basic Science》 2006-04
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Formation Mechanism and Resources Prospect of the Abiogenic Gas

Wang Xianbin,Tuo Jincai,Li Zhenxi,Zhou Shixin,Yan HongKey Lab of Gas Geochemistry, Institute of Geology &Geophysics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000Guo ZhanqianDaqing Petroleum Exploration & DevelopmentInstitute, CNPC, Daqing 163712Zhuo ShengguanQinhuandao Division, Northeast University, Qinhuangdao 066004  
The paper deals with formation mechanisms, correlations and differences of the bacterial (biogenic) gas, thermogenic gas, deep gas and abiogenic gas; evaluates the history and developmental tendency of abiogenic gas researches; debates upon the concept that the abiogenic gas has no resource prospect due to the absence of any abiogenic gas reservoirs with commercial value up to now in the world; and discusses the effectiveness of geochemical criteria to identify genetic types of natural gases as well as some key scientific problems on the organic matter evolution of the deep earth. It is proposed that controlled by the isotopically dynamic fractionation of biodegradation and thermal decomposition, the depositional organic matter produces hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethane, propane and butane) that have a normally ordered distribution for both carbon and hydrogen isotopic values, namely δ~ 13C_1δ~ 13C_2δ~ 13C_3δ~ 13C_4 and δ~2H_ CH_4δ~2H_ C_2H_6δ~2H_ C_3H_8δ~2H_ C_4H_ 10, respectively, showing a positive correlation between carbon and hydrogen isotopes. However, the abiogenic gas, controlled by the isotopically dynamic fractionation of polymerization, has a reversed carbon but the same hydrogen isotopic distribution compared with biogenic gases, i.e. δ~ 13C_1δ~ 13C_2δ~ 13C_3δ~ 13C_4 and δ~2H_ CH_4δ~2H_ C_2H_6δ~2H_ C_3H_8δ~2H_ C_4H_ 10, respectively, showing a negative correlation between carbon and hydrogen isotopes. Moreover, the abiogenic gas usually has δ~ 13C_1 values ≥-30.0‰. The paper also makes comments on the significant progress in abiogenic gas researches of China by means of depicting geological and geochemical characteristics of the abiogenic gas from Songliao Basin, and points that the discovery of the Changde-Zhaozhouxi abiogenic gas reservoir in Songliao Basin has provided studying and seeking abiogenic gas resources with an typical example: with the significant breakthrough in the deep gas exploration in Songliao Basin, more than 20 commercial wells are characteristic of an abiogenic origin, showing a good prospect for the abiogenic gas exploration and development in Songliao Basin and resulting in Songliao Basin as the most ideal area for studying and seeking abiogenic resources in the world.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金(No.49233060和No.40572087);; 973计划项目(2003CB214606)
【CateGory Index】: P618.130.1
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