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Changes of Femoral Head Bone Metabolism Induced by Diabetes Mellitus

ZHANG Kai-fang, LIU Jun, LIU Tao, et al. The Department of Orthopaedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, Shaanxi, China  
Objective To explore the pathological changes of the femoral head bone metabolism induced by diabetes mellitus.Methods Seventy rabbits were divided into the control group and experiment group randomly. The control group were injected with saline; while the experiment group were injected with Alloxan through ear-edge vein quickly to establish the immediate diabetes mellitus model. The histopathology, ultrastructure, biochemistry, hemorrheology, and platelet function of all animals of two groups were detected in different periods.Results In the experiment group, 2 animals' bone trabecula were found disorder and vacant bone lacuna was 14% in the 4th week; in the 8th week, 3 animals' part bone trabecula were found breakage, defluxion, vacant bone lacuna was 28%; in the 12th week, 5 animals' bone trabecula were found breakage, defluxion obviously, vacant bone lacuna was 56%. Under TEM, there was some lipid droplet in bone cells, bone cellular necrotized at different levels. Myelosis decrease, the number and diameter of adipose cell increased. In the 8th and 12th week, the content of serum calcium decreased and that of serum phosphorus increased in the experiment group compared with the control group ( P0.05, P0.0l), and the product of calcium and phosphorus of the experiment group in the 12th week was lower than that of the control group (P0.05).Conclusion DM can cause osteoporosis. Capillary fracture happens in the arch bridge structure of femoral head under machine press while being pressed. Along with the course of DM process, capillary fracture accumulates, bone under cartilage compress and collapse. It can oppress bone capillary to cause ischemia. All factors result in the basic pathology and the primary pathogenesy of the femoral head.
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