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Survey and Analysis on Nutrient Level and Microorganism Population of Orchard Soil in Beijing Suburb

Zhang Qiang1,Wei Qinping1,Qi Hongyan2,Wang Xiaowei1,Huang Wuren2,Liu Jun1(1Institute of Forestry&Pomology,Beijing Academy of Agriculture&Forestry Sciences,Beijing 100093;2Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100085)  
In order to prove up the soil fertility level of orchards in Beijing suburb,soil samples were collected to analyze the soil physi-chemical properties and microbial populations in three levels of yield and quality of apple,pear,peach and grape orchards(H,M,L).The results showed that soil bulk density,cation exchange capacity(CEC) and pH were 1.06-1.64 g/cm3,81.47-238.83 mmol/kg and 6.45-8.55,respectively.There was no significant difference among different fruit trees for soil bulk density.However the CEC values of apple,peach and grape orchards were significantly higher than pear ones,and H and M orchards were higher than L's in the same fruit trees species.Soil organic matter(SOM) was between 7.34 g/kg and 19.50 g/kg,with no significant difference among the different fruit trees.But the H orchard was higher than M's and L's in the same fruit trees species.Total nitrogen(N) content of all orchards were between 0.41 g/kg and 1.09 g/kg,but apple,peach and grape orchards were significantly higher than pear's,and H orchard was higher than M's and L's in the same fruit trees species.Soil available phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) were 14.54-185.50 mg/kg and 99.77~267.50 mg/kg,respectively.There was no significant difference as in the different fruit trees as in the different levels orchards.The soil available iron(Fe),zinc(Zn) and boron(B) content of four fruit trees was 0.45×107-1.23×107 cfu/g,and apple orchard's was the highest whereas were 4.78-33.42 mg/kg,0.97-10.54 mg/kg and 0.19-0.58 mg/kg,respectively.Total quantity of microbial community of four fruit species was 0.45×107-1.23×107 cfu/g,and apple orchard's was the highest whereas the pear's was the lowest.The quantity of bacteria was dominant,followed by actinomyces,and then fungi.Soil nutrient index(Pi) of apple,grape,peach and pear were 0.71,0.58,0.54 and 0.31 in order.The order of Pi in the same fruit tree orchard was HML.By synthetically analysis,the results of soil nutrient level and microorganism population of orchards were with high pH,low SOM and low total N,high P/K ratio,lack of available B,less quantity of soil microorganism in Beijing suburb.The basicresearch of soil may provide of applied practice for soil fertility improvement of Beijing orchards.
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