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《Scientia Agricultura Sinica》 2013-07
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Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Regulation and Soil Surface Mulching on Nitrogen Use by Winter Wheat and Its Residue and Leaching in Dryland Soil

LI Qiang1,WANG Zhao-hui1,DAI Jian1,LI Fu-cui1,LI Meng-hua1,ZHAO Hu-bing1,CAO Qun-hu2(1College of Resources and Environmental Science,Northwest A & F University,Yangling 712100,Shaanxi;2Agricultural Technology Extension Centers of Changwu County,Changwu 713600,Shaanxi)  
【Objective】Since water deficiency and unreasonable nitrogen(N) fertilization are the key factors impacting crop production in dryland area of Northwest China,it is of great importance to work on fertilization and cultivation management for increasing crop yield,water and fertilizer efficiency in this area.【Method】Long term field experiments were carried out to study the effects of topdressing at early spring,N fertilizer regulation,ridge-mulching and furrow seeding,seeding density and straw mulching during summer fallow on winter wheat yield,N uptake,residual nitrate-N after crop harvest and its leaching,and soil N mineralization during summer fallow.【Result】Results showed that compared with conventional fertilization,topdressing at early spring,N fertilizer regulation and topdressing at early spring,N fertilizer regulation and ridge mulching with furrow seeding,N fertilizer regulation and ridge mulching with furrow seeding at high seeding density increased winter wheat yield by 15.7%,22.2%,38.6% and 22.4%,N uptake by 25.0%,32.0%,36.4% and 6.4%,and N harvest index by 3.8%,3.3%,5.7% and 6.8%,but decreased residual nitrate-N in current season by 30.9%,20.0%,59.5% and 68.2%,and also decreased leaching of nitrate-N to deep soil layers below 60 cm by 27.5%,24.6%,42.3% and 24.3% during summer fallow.【Conclusion】Thus,topdressing at early spring,N fertilizer regulation and topdressing at early spring,N fertilizer regulation and ridge mulching with furrow seeding,N fertilizer regulation and ridge mulching with furrow seeding at high seeding density increased winter wheat yield while promoting plant N uptake and decreasing residual nitrate-N in Weibei arid areas.The practice of N fertilizer regulation and ridge mulching with furrow seeding combined with covering soil surface by straw mulching during summer fallow increased the water storage in summer fallow while preventing nitrate-N leaching to deep soil,thus is recommended in dryland area of Northwest China.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金(30971866);; 现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金;; 农业公益性行业科研专项(201303104 201103003);; 现代农业人才支撑计划项目
【CateGory Index】: S512.11
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