Time Serial Analysis of Residents' Living Consumption with Ecological Footprint in Shangqiu of Henan Province
MIN Qing-wen~1, YU Wei-dong~2, CHENG Sheng-kui~1 (1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China; 2. Shangqiu Meteorological Bureau of Henan Province, Shangqiu 476000, China)
As a new method in ecological economics, ecological footprint (EF) can be taken as one of the measurements to evaluate regional sustainable development by calculating the bio-productive areas for maintaining natural resources consumption and removing wastes under certain population and economic conditions and comparing to the regional biological carry capacity. Since 1991 when the concept was advanced, especially in last five years, many efforts have been made in some aspects of the field, for example, theory and methodology, regional or national EF, assessment of sustainable development, evaluation of regional ecological asset, urban ecosystem appropriation, analysis of residents' consumption between urban and rural areas. In this paper, taking Shangqiu Prefecture of Henan Province as an example, the authors calculate and analysis the EF of living consumption of urban and rural residents between 1986 and 2001. Because of the differences existing in between urban and rural areas in living standard and habits, the EF of urban and rural residents were calculated respectively. And on the basis of this calculation, the average EF of the region was gained. The results show that the EF rises gradually from 1986 to 2001 and there exist two different phases: slow phase between 1986 (0.469) and 1996 (0.570) with a yearly increase rate of 1.8% and rapid phase between 1996 (0.570) and 2001 (0.867) with a yearly increase rate of 7.2%. The tendencies of EF in urban area, rural area and the whole region are quit different, urban EF is always more than rural EF and the increase rate of rural EF is more than that of urban EF. From 1986 to 2001, urban EF rises from 0.882hm~2/person to 1.057 hm~2/person with a yearly increase rate of 1.1%. During this period, rural EF rises from 0.441 hm~2/person to 0.828 hm~2/person with a yearly increase rate of 4.0%. By analyzing the variation of arable system appropriation and its proportion in total EF, it can be found that in the per capita EF in Shangqiu, the arable proportion is always very high. The average of the 14 years is 82.8%, which shows it is the variation of arable system that determines the tendency of total EF. Besides, the arable appropriation has been increasing from 1986 (0.36hm~2/person) to 2001 (0.78hm~2/person). This fact shows that the increase of per capita EF could come from the occupation to arable land. Therefore, how to conserve arable land effectively and alter ecosystem appropriate structure through adjusting industrial structure should be paid much more attention. Based on the data of arable land, grassland, forestland, water land, and construction land and the corresponding yield factors and balancing factors, the regional biological carry capacities from 1986 to 2001 were calculated. In the period, the carry capacities rang from 0.2 to 0.3. Comparison the calculated carry capacity with EF indicates that per capital and total ecological deficits all increase gradually. Therefore, the current development that has gone beyond the regional ecological carry capacity need exterior input and this need is increasing gradually.