SPORO-POLLEN ANALYSIS OF SOME ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION ON THE PAST FLORA AND CLIMATE OF NEI-MONGGOL ZIZHIQU(INNER MONGOLIA AUTONOMOUS REGION)
Kung Zhaochen Du Naiqiu (Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica)
This paper records some sporo-pollen assemblages found in four archaeo- logical sites at the temperate steppe region. (1)A paleolithic site (a stone implements making) of the eastern outskirt of Hohhot Shi; 2)A human remaining site of the outskirt of Jalainuoer (49°20′N, 119°35′E),Manzhouli; (3)A microlithic site of the Yiminhe valley near Hailaer; 4)An archaeological site of the Eladianzi village (42°20′N,120°E), Ju Ud Meng. In the first site, a forest-steppe of warm-temperate nature is found in the present outskirts of the city Hohhot of paleolithic age. Then, the climate was warmer and wetter than that of present time and the annual precipita- tion was about 100mm, being more than that of today. In the second site, the climate was warmer and wetter than 11400±230 years ago, but to-day it is rather cold and dry. The vegetation was the for- est-steppe of temperate nature. Annual mean precipitation was about 500- 600mm. By that time, a mixed broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen forest composed of Pinus sylvestris var. mongoliea, Ulmus, Tilia and Juglans were widely distributed. Probably, lakes and bogs were also better developed in that region. The vegetation of the third site was forest-steppe, and the climate was warmer and wetter during the microlithic age, but at present the vegetation belongs to a typical steppe zone of temperate nature. Based on the absolute chronogical 3420±85 years ago, and sporo-pollen assemblages, the climate of the last site was warm and wet, the vegetation was needleleaf-broadleaf mixed forest, mainly composed by Pinus tabulaeformis and Fraxinus. In those days the millet (Setalia italica) was planted. According to palynological investigation on the four archaeological sites, development of steppe in Neimonggol is rapid since Late Pleistocene.