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A PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE GERMINATION OF GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (L.) TAUB) SEEDS

Zheng Guang-hua,Gu Zeng-hui, Xu Ben-mei (Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica)  
After sowing the guar seeds introduced from abroad, it was frequently observed that their seedlings were delayed and poor stand was obtained,especially with spring sowing in northern regions, in order to overcome this difficulty in developing guar stands, physiological investigations on seed germination were conducted. The results obtained in a series of experiments are summarized as follows: 1. The optimum temperature for germination is 25-30℃.When the temperature was20℃, the germination was considerably delayed, at 15℃, the germination was very poor; and down to 10℃ or below, all the seeds were incapable of germinating. On the other hand, a temperature as high as 35-40℃, had little effect on germinating power, although the percentage of germination was lowered. 2. The guar seeds absorbed much more water than other legume seeds, and as a result of full absorption of water, they take up about over twice as much water as their original weight.When the water imbibed had reached approximatly 160%, germination would go perfectly well. 3. The seed had higher water-holding capacity and also higher hardiness to drought than other legume seeds, In fact, swelling seeds, even at the onset of germination, retained a certain degree of viability in air dryed condition.Whenever the seeds had imbibed sufficient water, even when no additional water was supplied they would germinate well, provided that they were not desiccated. 4. Although temperature affected the rate of water absorption, specially at the initial stage, no quantitative relation has been formed.In soaking seeds, the temperature of water should be at least 15℃, a temperature of about 10℃, if maintained for 8 hours, would do serious harm to their viability, which may be avoided by presoaking them in warm water (25-30℃) for 4-8 hours. 5. After the seeds had been prestored in freeze-dried condition [0-(-7)°C] for about a month, they acquired an adaptive hardiness to harmful soaking so that nearly 70% of them survived. Tests by electrophoresis showed that the activities of some peroxidase isoenzymes were enhanced during the hardening process, which may be called "defensive reaction" and is an adaptation to harmful soaking. 6. The depth of sowing directly and indirectly influenced the growth of hypocotyl in soil as well as the emergency of cotylydons.Where the soil moisture is adequate, the optimum depth of sowing would be 1.5-3 cm. 7. The changes of activities of certain enzymes and content of some chemical constituents in the injured seeds were analyzed and compared with normal ones. Of all the items studied, only the decline in dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities exhibited an obvious correlation with the degree of injury of seed viability during the harmful soaking, while catalase was kept at a certain level.Another outstanding enzyme is polyphenol oxidase, of which the rise in activity corresponded to the increase of injury during cool soaking.On the other hand, the damaged embryos contained much more protein, less reducing sugar, and no starch, which was probably the result, and not the cause of the harmful effects of cool soaking. On the basis of the above findings as well as recent informations related to this problem indirectly, a hypothetical mechanism proposed by the authors was discussed.
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