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The Simulation of HBV Hydrology Model in the Dongkemadi River Basin,Headwater of the Yangtze River

GAO Hong-kai1,2,3,HE Xiao-bo2,YE Bai-sheng1,2,GAO Xin1,2,3(1.State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences Cold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou Gansu 730000,China;2.Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou Gansu 730000,China; 3.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China)  
The conceptual semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model,HBV,was applied to simulate the daily runoff of Dongkemadi River basin in the headwaters of Yangtze River,to examine the applicability of this well-known model in glacier-covered basin on the Tibetan Plateau.Daily air temperature and precipitation of 2004/2005 and 2006/2007,as input variables,and discharge was used for calibration.The hydro-meteorological data of 2005/2006 and 2007/2008 was used for validation.The simulated results show that during the calibration period,Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient(Reff) is 0.81 and 0.75,respectively;during the validation period,Reff is 0.73 and 0.67.In this simulation experiment,the simulated daily runoff does not fit very well with the observed data.However,the Reff reaches 0.94 when simulating the monthly runoff and the bias is only 6% when simulating the annual runoff.It clearly shows that the simulated monthly and annual runoff is more trustable than the simulated daily runoff.Then,using the daily temperature and precipitation data(1955—2008) of four national meteorological stations near the Dongkemadi River basin,the Drab's daily temperature from 1955 to 2008 was gained by polynomial interpolation,the daily precipitation was got by using the combined method of precipitation gradient and inverse distance weighting.Using the interpolated meteorological data as the driving data,this study reconstructed the daily runoff from 1955 to 2008 by HBV model.It is found that from 1955 to 2008 the runoff depth increased with a rate of 5.61 mm·a-1,and the glacier mass balance loss rate was-136.0 mm·a-1.Comprehensively analyzing the temperature,precipitation and runoff,it is speculated that the aggravating glacier ablation caused by increasing air temperature was most likely the main driving force for the runoff increase in the basin,accounting for about 66%.
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