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Characteristics and formation mechanism of typical sliding-toppling landslides in Bailong River trunk streams of Gansu,China

REN Guang-ming;XIA Min;ZENG Qiang;JIA Yi;L Sheng-di;LU Dong-liang;LIU Rong-qing;ZHAO Hai-ying;GOU Fu-min;State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology;Northwest Investigation & Design Research Academy,State Power Corporation;  
This paper researches on the characteristics the formation conditions and mechanism of the toppling deformation occurring on the medium-steep bedding rock slopes.The longitudinal valley is well developed along the Bailong River trunk streams influenced by regional geotectonic conditions.The Silurian sandy slate and phyllite are well developed in this area,especially the soft thin-layered sericite quartz and carbonaceous phyllite exposed in Zhouqu and Wudu regions.They leading to the lower stability of bank slopes.Particularly,the landslides are more likely to occur in the bedding slopes as the failure modes of sliding-toppling and sliding-tension.Further,a special toppling failure mode is founded on the steep bedding rock slopes,namely,the termed sliding-toppling mode,based on the field investigations associated withⅦ#landslide situated in the Shuiboxia hydropower station,the Qingyaling landslide and the Mengjiagangou landslide situated in the Bikou hydroelectric power station on the Bailong River.It can be concluded that the sliding-toppling mode is primarily well developed on the steep bedding rock slopes with alternating soft and hard layers.These rock slopes generally have a favorable free surface condition with the angle of slope greater than 40°and the strata dip angle greater than 65°.The formation mechanism is induced by the slope stress field,water or earthquake.The initial deformation occurs at the lower part of the slope,along with the slidingtoppling at the upper part.Finally,the continuous toppling failure surface appears in the basal plane and results in the landslide.
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