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On Effects of Ionoshpere on GPS Positioning

Xie Shijie ① Han Mingfeng ② (① Bureau of Surveying and Mapping under the PLA Headquarters of the General Staff, Beijing, 100088; ② General Prospecting and Surveying Team under Yellow River Water Conservacy Commission, Zhengzhou, 450000)  
The ionoshpere is an important error source of GPS positicning. In this paper, characteristics of the lonosphere, refractive index of the ionosphere and the following major effects: ionospheric group delay, ionospheric carrier phase advance, ionoshperic Doppler shift, ionospheric phase scintilation effects, magnetic stroms effects on GPS positioning, ionospheric effects on differential GPS positioning and ionospheric correction of GPS receivers are discussed.
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