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《中国人口·资源与环境(英文版)》 2016-02
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Switching to alternative transit:combining bicycle safety improvements with parking regulations

Isabel Qi;Department of Geography,University of California;  
Smart growth policies advocate for economically viable,environmentally conscientious,and socially equitable solutions for urban development.These policies were developed largely in response to issues rooted in the automobile-oriented culture:air pollution,high greenhouse gas emissions,traffic congestion,and sedentary lifestyles.In urban settings,a good transportation alternative is cycling,since it is able to serve the travel needs of nearly half of city dwellers' daily trips.Many European and Canadian cities have successfully increased cycling rates by creating safer bicycle environments and restricting or discouraging automobile use.To evaluate the potential effects of the above measures on American urban areas,this paper examines case studies of cycle tracks and bicycle boulevards implemented in American cities,and how these facility improvements have changed how safe cyclists feel on the road and overall bicycle usage.Results show the two methods are indeed effective in increasing bicycle usage rates.Ultimately,increasing cycling rates needs policies to discourage people from driving,the greatest mode share in nearly all urban areas.Parking policy has major impacts on people's decision to use the automobile.Currently,parking is oversupplied and underpriced in many cities,making it irresistible for people to drive.Decreasing the number of parking spaces available and increasing their price will increase pressure on drivers to drive less,especially for short trips,and to bike instead.It is important for planners and policy makers to realize that solutions from both directions,making biking more enjoyable and making parking,and hence driving,less affordable,should be used in tandem.The complementary nature of the two approaches makes it so the effect of the combination is greater than the sum of the two.
【CateGory Index】: F571
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