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A preliminary study of the Triassic large-scale mineralization in China and its geodynamic setting

MAO Jing-wen,ZHOU Zhen-hua,FENG Cheng-you,WANG Yi-tian, ZHANG Chang-qing,PENG Hui-juan,YU Miao(Institute of Mineral Resources,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China)  
Triassic tectonic evolution in China is characterized by high intensity and wide influence.However,the metallogenic study related to the major Triassic tectonic events has obviously been lagging behind.This paper preliminarily and systematically discusses the space-time distribution and basic characteristics of the large scale Triassic mineralization in China based on the latest research achievements.Triassic deposits in China are distributed mainly in the two main Triassic orogenic belts of the Kunlun-Qinling orogenic belt and the Red River-Ailaoshan orogen belt and their adjacent regions;Besides,there are a series of polymetallic deposits developed in the three intraplates of southern China,northeastern China and Xinjiang area.Major types of Triassic deposits mainly include: ① Cu-Ni sulfide deposits related to basic-ultrabasic rock;② porphyry Cu-Au,Cu-Mo,Mo deposits,skarn Cu-Pb-Zn,Cu-Fe,Sn,W deposits and vein-type Au deposits related to intermediate-acid rocks and acidic plutons;③ pegmatite-type rare metal deposits related to high temperature gas-fluids;④ orogenic Au deposits related to tectonic-hydrothermal activities in the orogenic process;⑤ MVT Pb-Zn deposits related to basinal fluids in the orogenic process;⑥ carbonated vein-type Mo deposits related to mantle fluids.Most of the Triassic deposits in the Kunlun-Qinling orogen belt were mainly formed in collisional stage,or in the post-collision setting.In East Qinling area,the Triassic deposits are dominated by Mo,Au,with the formation ages mainly concentrated in 233-221Ma.In contrast,Au deposits and Pb-Zn deposits of Triassic are widely distributed in West Qinling area,Au deposits are distributed along the NW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones,and Pb-Zn deposits are largely concentrated in the two targe basins of Xicheng and Fengtai,whose metallogenic epochs are mainly in the Late Triassic(232-214Ma).In East Kunlun area,newly discovered Cu-Mo-Fe polymetallic deposits were formed in 240-210 Ma.Influenced by Neo-Tethys evolution,Triassic metal mineral resources are scattered in the Red River-Ailaoshan orogen belt,mainly distributed in Zhongdian ancient island arc,Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan border area in the east of the orogenic belt and Dulong area of southeast Yunnan.In Zhongdian area,the metallogenic ages are concentrated in 228-201Ma and their distribution shows the characteristics of porphyry-skarn Cu deposits in the middle part and porphyry-epithermal Cu-Pb-Zn deposits and Au deposits on both north and south sides.The dating results obtained in recent years indicate that Pb-Zn deposits in Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan border area were mainly formed in Triassic.Moreover,a series of Triassic W-Sn deposits have been discovered recently in Dulong area of southeast Yunnan,whose peak age is 214-209Ma.In addition to the two main collision belts,rare metal and W-Sn deposits in South China,rare metal and Mo deposits in Xinjiang,porphyry Mo deposits,Cu-Ni sulfide deposits and vein type Au deposits in Northeast China and its adjacent areas were also formed in Triassic,and all of these deposits were closely related to the collision regime,most Triassic deposits in South China were related to EW-extending tectonic-magmatic systems and derived from the emplacement of aluminum granite resulting from the remelting of thickened crust.The mineralization of Triassic deposits in Northeast China and its adjacent areas,Xinjiang,and some neighboring areas of Mongolia and Russian Altay as well as Siberia were probably related to mantle plume activities.
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