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《Geochimica》 2010-01
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Mare basalts and lunar evolution

XU Yi-gang(CAS Key Laboratory for Isotope Geochronology and Geochemistry,Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,Guangzhou 510640,China)  
Mare basalts are mainly distributed in basins in the near-earth side,occupying 1%of the volume of the Moon. Most mare basalts were emplaced during 3.9-3.1 Ga,thus being young by lunar standards. Like basaltic rocks on Earth,mare basalts are composed of plagioclase,pyroxene and olivine. However,they are lower in Mg#,Al2O3,Na and K,higher in FeO contents than the terrestrial basalts. TiO2 contents in mare basalts are extremely varied,ranging from 1%to 13%. Based on the TiO2 variation,mare basalts are classified into three groups,i.e.,high Ti (6%),low Ti (1.5% TiO2 6%) and extremely low Ti ( 1.5%) basalts. All the mare basalts are characterized by negative Eu anomaly and are deficient in volatile and siderophile elements. Isotopic systematics of mare basalts indicate at least three components:(1) a component with high 238U/204Pb,high 87Sr/86Sr and negative εNd values,likely represented by KREEP residuum of a global lunar magma ocean; (2) a "primordial" deep mantle source with 238U/204Pb typical of Earth,low 87Sr/86Sr and positive εNd values; and (3) a shallow mantle reservoir that has similar 238U/204Pb values to the second,intermediate εNd and low to intermediate 87Sr/86Sr values. The typical melting products of the second and third components are low-Ti and high-Ti basalts,respectively.Elemental and isotopic characteristics of mare basalts are in support of the lunar magma ocean hypothesis and suggest a close relationship between their source formation and differentiation of magma ocean. The sources for the mare basalts were likely formed in a three-stage process. First,a global lunar magma ocean differentiated into a plagioclase-rich flotation crust,a thin high-Ti source and a thick low-Ti source consisting mostly of variable proportions of olivine and orthopyroxene with minor clinopyroxene. Second,the denser ilmenite-rich layer,probably accompanied by variable amount of KREEP-type magma residuum,sank into the lower silicate layer over time below 400 km. Third,mare basalts are generated from these sources by decompression melting. Earliest melts (low K,high Ti basalts) were likely derived from the low-temperature components in the relatively shallow mantle. This was followed by both high-Ti and low-Ti basalts generated at greater depths.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金(40721063);; 中国科学院知识创新工程方向性项目(KZCX2-YW-T004)
【CateGory Index】: P184.1
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