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《Chinese Journal of Geophysics》 2015-01
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A phased arc array acoustic LWD transmitter constructed by arcuate piezoelectric vibrators

WANG Rui-Jia;QIAO Wen-Xiao;CHE Xiao-Hua;State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting,China University of Petroleum;Key Laboratory of Earth Prospecting and Information Technology;  
The three dimensional acoustic reflection logging while drilling(3D-ARLWD)is able to image formation structures and geological bodies around a borehole,thus providing revelant information for geosteering.To meet the requirement of geosteering,an acoustic logging tool must be able to accurately locate reflectors in 3D.However,conventional monopole sources lack azimuthal resolution,and dipole sources only have limited azimuthal resolution.Therefore,these two sources can hardly be applied for 3D-ARLWD development,whereas new downhole acoustic transmitters are required.We propose a phased arc array acoustic LWD transmitter constructed by arcuate piezoelectric vibrators,to provide a new three dimensional acoustic reflection logging technique with low-frequency acoustic waves.First,we describe the physical structure andprinciple of this phased arc array transmitter,and then deduce the mathematical description of the acoustic properties for this transmitter.Next,real-axis integration method is adopted to obtain acoustic field inside and outside of the fluid-filled borehole.We then calculate the acoustic field induced by the new source in an infinite liquid or in rock formations surrounding a borehole,and we analyze the radiation pattern of the source with different phased control parameters.At high frequencies,the drill collar is able to block acoustic signals propagating toward this collar,causing acoustic signal to propagate mainly against the collar.Therefore,it is possible to implement 3D-ARLWD by using single array element with these frequencies.However,at 6kHz and below,the drill collar is not able to effectively block acoustic signals,and thus we observe acoustic signals behind the drill collar.Hence,it is infeasible to implement 3D-ARLWD by using single array element with low frequencies.On the other hand,because low-frequency acoustic signals have deeper investigation depth than the high-frequency ones,the low-frequency signals must be included for field measurement.Therefore,we adjust the excitation amplitude and delay time of each element in the phased arc array,and improve the horizontal radiation pattern through the collaborative work of each array element.Results show that,the phased arc array transmitter associated with appropriate phased control strategy is able to emit low-frequency compressional waves in a desirable direction.The radiation pattern of the compressional wave field for this source has a clear main lobe with low 3dB angle width(53.1°for fast formation,94.3°for slow formation),and is of low-level side lobe.It suggests that this transmitter has good azimuthal resolution and is suitable for 3D-ARLWD.Further,we use different phased control strategy to modify acoustic axis of the source,and by stepping changing acoustic axis of this source we try to azimuthally scan the formation around the borehole.The snapshots of compressional wave field indicate the source is able to scan the formation with an azimuthal resolutionof 15°.It suggests that appropriate phased control strategy makes the sampling intervals in the circumferential direction not limited to the angle between two adjacent array elements.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金(11204380;11374371;11134011和61102102);; 国家油气重大科技专项(2011ZX05020-009);; 中国石油科技创新基金(2013D-5006-0304);; 中国石油天然气集团公司项目(2011A-3903;2011B-4001)资助
【CateGory Index】: P631.83
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