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《Chinese Journal of Geophysics》 2015-08
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Effects of the electric anisotropy on marine controlled-source electromagnetic responses

LUO Ming;LI Yu-Guo;College of Marine Geosciences,Ocean University of China;Key Lab of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Techniques of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China;  
Recently,the marine controlled-source electromagnetic(CSEM)method has emerged as a useful exploration technique for mapping offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs and characterizing gas hydrates.The frequency domain marine CSEM system usually uses a deep-towed horizontal electric dipole(HED)source to transmit low frequency energy to an array of seabed receivers.The receivers detect and record the electromagnetic signals from the source.The resistivity distribution below the seabed may be determined by interpreting the recorded electromagnetic fields as a function of source-receiver offsets.When interpreting the marine CSEM data,the seabed is usually assumed to be electrically isotropic.However,it is commonly known that the electric conductivity in the earth′s subsurface shows anisotropic effects.Fracture zones and layered sedimentary sequences are capable of producing anisotropy on a macroscopic scale.Ignoring anisotropy may lead to a distorted image of seabed conductivity structures,even misinterpretation.In this paper,we present a method for simulating marine CSEM fields from an electric dipole source in stratified media with general anisotropy.We simulate the marine CSEM responses of layered models with three types of anisotropy:Vertical Transverse Isotropy(VTI),Horizontal Transverse Isotropy(HTI)and Tilted Transverse Isotropy(TTI).We study the effects of anisotropy in both the sediments and the reservoir on CSEM fields.The model studies show that the CSEM fields are affected considerably by anisotropy in both the sediments and the reservoir target,but to different extent.The horizontal and vertical resistivity of the surrounding sediment,and the vertical resistivity of the reservoir have a significant effect on CSEM responses,whereas the influence of the reservoir′s horizontal resistivity is hardly to be observed.The influence of the horizontal resistivity of the sediment on CSEM fields is much larger than that of the vertical resistivity.The electromagnetic responses are affected considerably by the anisotropic dip angle.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学重点基金项目(41130420)资助
【CateGory Index】: P631.325
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